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CO2 Capture and Storage: A Key Carbon Abatement Option (International Energy Agency)

Oil, coal and natural gas will remain the world’s dominant sources of energy over the next decades, with resulting carbon dioxide emissions set to increase to unsustainable levels. However, technologies that help reduce CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels can reverse this trend. CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) is particularly promising. CCS takes CO 2 from large stationary sources and stores it in deep geological layers to prevent its release into the atmosphere. Responding to a G8 Gleneagles request, this study documents progress toward the development of CCS, covering capture, transportation and storage technologies and their costs; storage capacity estimates, regional assessment of CCS potential; legal and regulatory frameworks; public awareness and outreach strategies; and financial mechanisms and international mechanisms. It also discusses the role of CCS in ambitious new energy scenarios that aim for substantial emissions reduction. This publication elaborates the potential of CCS in coal-fuelled electricity generation and estimates for capture in the industry and fuel transformation sectors. Finally, it assesses the infrastructure needed to process and transport large volumes of CO 2 .