# 5 Steps to a 5 - AP Physics

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**McGRAW-HILL**

**5 Steps to a 5**

**AP Physics B and C**

Other books in McGraw-Hill’s

*5 Steps to a 5*Series include:

AP Biology

AP Calculus AB

AP Chemistry

AP English Language

AP English Literature

AP Microeconomics/Macroeconomics

AP Psychology

AP Spanish Language

AP Statistics

AP U.S. Government and Politics

AP U.S. History

AP World History

Writing the AP English Essay

**McGRAW-HILL**

**5 Steps to a 5**

**AP Physics B and C**

**Greg Jacobs and Josh Schulman**

**MCGRAW-HILL**

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Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the

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DOI: 10.1036/0071460551

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**Contents**

(

*Entries preceded by a C! are of special relevance for Physics C students; those preceded*

*by a B! are relevant for Physics B students*)

**Preface: How to Approach Your Physics Course / xi**

Ignore Your Grade / xi

Don’t Bang Your Head Against a Brick Wall / xi

Work With Other People / xii

Ask Questions When Appropriate / xii

Keep an Even Temper / xii

Don’t Cram / xii

Never Forget, Physics Is “Phun” / xiii

**Acknowledgments / xv**

**PART I**

**HOW TO USE THIS BOOK**

Welcome! / 3

Why This Book? / 3

Organization of the Book / 3

Introduction to the Five-Step Program / 4

Three Approaches to Preparing for the AP Physics Exam / 4

Calendar for Each Plan / 6

Introduction to the Graphics Used in This Book / 9

**PART II**

**WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW**

ABOUT THE AP PHYSICS EXAM

Background of the Advanced Placement Program / 13

ABOUT THE AP PHYSICS EXAM

Who Writes the AP Physics Exam? / 13

The AP Grades and Who Receives Them / 13

What’s the Difference Between Physics B and Physics C? / 13

Reasons for Taking the AP Physics Exam / 14

Questions Frequently Asked About the AP Physics Exam / 14

Getting Started: The Diagnostic Exam / 18

Answers and Explanations / 24

**PART III**

**PHYSICS-SPECIFIC**

TEST-TAKING ADVICE

TEST-TAKING ADVICE

**Chapter A**

**Memorizing Equations in the Shower / 31**

**Chapter B**

**How to Approach the**

Multiple-Choice Section / 37

Multiple-Choice Section / 37

**v**

**vi •**Contents

**Chapter C**

**How to Approach the Free-Response Section / 45**

**Chapter D**

**Lab Questions / 49**

**Chapter E**

**Extra Review of Fundamental Topics / 53**

**PART IV**

**COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW**

**Chapter 1**

**A Bit About Vectors / 65**

Scalars / 65

Vector Basics / 65

Graphic Representation of Vectors / 66

Vector Components / 66

Adding and Subtracting Vectors / 67

Practice Problems / 70

Solutions to Practice Problems / 71

**Chapter 2**

**Free-Body Diagrams and Equilibrium / 72**

What Is a Free-Body Diagram? / 72

Equilibrium / 73

Normal Force / 75

Tension / 76

Friction / 78

Inclined Planes / 81

Torque / 82

Practice Problems / 84

Solutions to Practice Problems / 85

Rapid Review / 86

**Chapter 3**

**Kinematics / 87**

Velocity, Acceleration, and Displacement / 87

Fundamental Kinematics Equations / 88

Kinematics Problem Solving / 89

Freefall / 90

Projectile Motion / 92

Motion Graphs / 94

Practice Problems / 96

Solutions to Practice Problems / 97

Rapid Review / 98

**Chapter 4**

**Newton’s Second Law,**=

*F*net

*ma*/ 99The Four-Step Problem-Solving Process / 99

Only

*NET*Force Equals

*ma*/ 100

*F*net on Inclines / 101

*F*net for a Pulley / 103

Newton’s Third Law / 105

Solution to Example Problem / 105

Practice Problems / 106

Solutions to Practice Problems / 108

Rapid Review / 108

**Chapter 5**

**Momentum / 109**

Momentum and Impulse / 109

Conservation of Momentum / 111

Contents

**• vii**

Elastic and Inelastic Collisions / 111

Two-Dimensional Collisions / 112

Practice Problems / 113

Solutions to Practice Problems / 114

Rapid Review / 115

**Chapter 6**

**Energy Conservation / 116**

Kinetic Energy and the Work–Energy Theorem / 116

Potential Energy / 118

Conservation of Energy: Problem-Solving Approach / 118

Springs / 120

Power / 121

**C!**Potential Energy vs. Displacement Graphs / 121

Practice Problems / 123

Solutions to Practice Problems / 124

Rapid Review / 124

**Chapter 7**

**Gravitation and Circular Motion / 125**

Velocity and Acceleration in Circular Motion / 125

Centripetal Forces / 126

Mass on a String / 127

Car on a Curve / 128

Newton’s Law of Gravitation / 129

**C!**Kepler’s Laws / 130

Practice Problems / 132

Solutions to Practice Problems / 133

Rapid Review / 134

**Chapter 8**

**Advanced Rotational Motion / 135**

**C!**Rotational Kinematics / 135

**C!**Moment of Inertia / 137

**C!**Newton’s Second Law for Rotation / 138

**C!**Rotational Kinetic Energy / 139

**C!**Angular Momentum and Its Conservation / 140

**C!**Practice Problems / 142

**C!**Solutions to Practice Problems / 143

**C!**Rapid Review / 144

**Chapter 9**

**Simple Harmonic Motion / 145**

Amplitude, Period, and Frequency / 145

Vibrating Mass on a Spring / 146

Simple Pendulums / 148

**C!**The Sinusoidal Nature of SHM / 150

Practice Problems / 151

Solutions to Practice Problems / 151

Rapid Review / 152

**Chapter 10**

**Thermodynamics / 153**

**B!**Heat, Temperature, and Power / 153

**B!**Thermal Expansion / 155

**B!**Ideal Gas Law / 155

**B!**Kinetic Theory of Gases / 156

**B!**First Law of Thermodynamics / 157

**viii •**Contents

**B!***PV*Diagrams / 158

**B!**Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics / 162

**B!**Entropy / 164

**B!**Practice Problems / 164

**B!**Solutions to Practice Problems / 165

**B!**Rapid Review / 166

**Chapter 11**

**Fluid Mechanics / 167**

**B!**Pressure and Density / 167

**B!**Pressure in a Static Fluid Column / 168

**B!**Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle / 170

**B!**Pascal’s Principle / 171

**B!**Flowing Fluids / 172

**B!**Practice Problems / 175

**B!**Solutions to Practice Problems / 176

**B!**Rapid Review / 177

**Chapter 12**

**Electrostatics / 178**

Electric Charge / 178

Electric Fields / 179

Force of an Electric Field / 180

Electric Potential / 181

Special Geometries for Electrostatics / 184

**C!**Gauss’s Law / 188

Practice Problems / 189

Solutions to Practice Problems / 190

Rapid Review / 191

**Chapter 13**

**Circuits / 192**

Current / 192

Resistance and Ohm’s Law / 193

Resistors in Series and in Parallel / 194

The

*V-I-R*Chart / 196

Kirchoff’s Laws / 198

Circuits from an Experimental Point of View / 201

RC Circuits: Steady-State Behavior / 202

**C!**RC Circuits: Transitional Behavior / 204

Practice Problems / 206

Solutions to Practice Problems / 207

Rapid Review / 208

**Chapter 14**

**Magnetism / 210**

Magnetic Fields / 210

Long, Straight Current-Carrying Wires / 212

Moving Charged Particles / 213

Mass Spectrometry / 216

**C!**Important Consequences of Biot–Savart and Ampere’s Law / 217

**B! C!**Induced EMF / 218

**C!**Inductors in Circuits / 222

Practice Problems / 225

Solutions to Practice Problems / 226

Rapid Review / 226

Contents

**• ix**

**Chapter 15**

**Waves / 228**

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves / 228

Interference / 230

Standing Waves / 231

Doppler Effect / 234

Electromagnetic Waves / 235

**C!**Maxwell’s Equations / 235

**B!**Single and Double Slits / 236

Index of Refraction / 238

Thin Films / 239

Practice Problems / 241

Solutions to Practice Problems / 242

Rapid Review / 243

**Chapter 16**

**Optics / 244**

**B!**Snell’s Law / 244

**B!**Mirrors / 246

**B!**Lenses / 249

**B!**Practice Problems / 251

**B!**Solutions to Practice Problems / 253

**B!**Rapid Review / 254

**Chapter 17**

**Atomic and Nuclear Physics / 255**

**B!**Subatomic Particles / 255

**B!**The Electron-Volt / 256

**B!**Energy Levels in an Atom / 256

**B!**Momentum of a Photon / 259

**B!**de Broglie Wavelength / 259

**B!**Three Types of Nuclear Decay Processes / 260

**B!**E = mc2 / 262

**B!**Practice Problems / 262

**B!**Solutions to Practice Problems / 263

**B!**Rapid Review / 264

**Chapter 18**

**Intensive Review of Special Topics / 265**

Tension Problems / 265

Electric and Magnetic Fields / 270

Inclined Planes / 272

Motion Graphs / 276

Simple Circuits / 279

**PART V**

**PRACTICE EXAMS AND SOLUTIONS**

Physics B Practice Exam—Multiple Choice / 285

Physics B Practice Exam—Free Response / 298

Physics B Practice Exam—Multiple-Choice Solutions / 302

Physics B Practice Exam—Free-Response Solutions / 308

Physics C—Mechanics Practice Exam—Multiple Choice / 313

Physics C—Electricity and Magnetism Practice Exam—

Multiple Choice / 322

Physics C—Mechanics Practice Exam—Free Response / 331

Physics C—Electricity and Magnetism Practice Exam—

Free Response / 334