AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, LEADERSHIP STYLE AND PERCEIVED LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS

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HUMAN


RESOURCE



DEVELOPMENT
RESEARCH
CENTER






AN EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE,
LEADERSHIP STYLE AND PERCEIVED
LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS








LISA A. WEINBERGER

DECEMBER 2003




Swanson & Associates
168 E. SIXTH STREET, SUITE 4002
ST. PAUL, MN 55101





























 Lisa Ann Weinberger 2003


















i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1...........................................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................1
Background and Purpose of the Study......................................................................3
Statement of the Problem ..........................................................................................6
Significance of the Study...........................................................................................7
Limitations ................................................................................................................8
Background of the Field Setting .............................................................................10
Definition of Terms .................................................................................................12
Summary .................................................................................................................13
Chapter 2.........................................................................................................................14
REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND HYPOTHESES.................................................14
Historical Perspective – Emotion and Intelligence ................................................14
Does Emotional Intelligence Exist?....................................................................17
Emotion and Human Resource Development .........................................................23
Emotional Intelligence ............................................................................................25
Trait Emotional Intelligence ...............................................................................26
Individual performance and success ...............................................................27
Relationships to personality measures............................................................30
Leadership, management & management development .................................31
Measurements of Trait Based Emotional Intelligence........................................34
Emotional quotient inventory (EQi) ...............................................................35






ii
Trait-meta-mood-scale (TMMS) ....................................................................37
Emotional competence inventory (ECI) .........................................................38
Ability Emotional Intelligence ............................................................................39
Emotions and organizational research ............................................................40
Ability emotional intelligence and personality...............................................41
Emotions and leadership.................................................................................42
Measurements of Ability Emotional Intelligence................................................43
Multifactor emotional intelligence survey (MEIS).........................................44
Mayer Salovey Caruso emotional intelligence test (MSCEIT) ......................50
Leadership...............................................................................................................55
Charismatic Leadership......................................................................................57
Transformational Leadership .............................................................................59
Multifactor leadership questionnaire (MLQ5x)..............................................61
Exploratory Questions and Their Hypotheses ........................................................65
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and
Their Transformational Leadership Style?.........................................................66
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and
Their Transactional Leadership Style?...............................................................67
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and
Their Laissez-Faire Leadership Style? ...............................................................68
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and
Their Subordinates Perception of Their Extra Effort? .......................................70






iii
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and
Their Subordinates Satisfaction with Their Leadership? ...................................71
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and
Their Perceived Leadership Effectiveness? ........................................................72
Summary .................................................................................................................74
Chapter 3.........................................................................................................................77
RESEARCH METHOD .............................................................................................77
Research Design .....................................................................................................77
Population and Sample ...........................................................................................78
Non-respondent Bias and Non-randomness of Responses..................................79
Data Collection Instruments ...................................................................................80
Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT v2) ....................81
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ5x)................................................84
Demographic Variables ......................................................................................85
Administration.........................................................................................................86
Phase One – MLQ5x...........................................................................................88
Phase Two – MSCEIT.........................................................................................90
Variables for Data Analysis and Statistical Treatment ..........................................91
Summary .................................................................................................................93
Chapter 4.........................................................................................................................95
RESULTS ...................................................................................................................95
Study Overview .......................................................................................................95






iv
Descriptive Statistics of Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test....96
Descriptive Statistics of the Multifactor Leadership Style Questionnaire..........99
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and Their
Leadership Style?..................................................................................................102
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and
Their Transformational Leadership Style?.......................................................103
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and
Their Transactional Leadership Style?.............................................................107
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and
Their Laissez-Faire Leadership Style? .............................................................110
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and their
Leadership Effectiveness?.....................................................................................112
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and
Their Subordinates Perception of Their Extra Effort? .....................................113
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and
Their Subordinates Satisfaction with Their Leadership? .................................116
What is the Relationship Between the Emotional Intelligence of Leaders and
Their Perceived Leadership Effectiveness? ......................................................118
Summary ...............................................................................................................121
Chapter 5.......................................................................................................................124
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................124
Summary ...............................................................................................................124






v
Conclusions...........................................................................................................127
Transformational Leadership and Emotional Intelligence...............................128
Transactional Leadership and Emotional Intelligence.....................................129
Laissez-faire Leadership and Emotional Intelligence ......................................130
Leadership Outcomes and Emotional Intelligence ...........................................130
Extra effort....................................................................................................130
Satisfaction....................................................................................................131
Effectiveness.................................................................................................131
Additional Survey Data.........................................................................................132
Implications for Practice ......................................................................................139
Implications for Theory.........................................................................................141
Future Research Needs .........................................................................................144
REFERENCES .............................................................................................................147
Appendix A...................................................................................................................168
Institutional Review Board/Human Subjects Committee Approval.........................168
Appendix B ...................................................................................................................170
Pre-Notification/Information Memo’s......................................................................170
Appendix C ...................................................................................................................176
Survey Consent Forms..............................................................................................176
Appendix D...................................................................................................................181
Survey Cover Letters ................................................................................................181
Appendix E ...................................................................................................................184
Survey Reminders.....................................................................................................184






vi
Appendix F....................................................................................................................189
Survey Instructions ...................................................................................................189
Appendix G...................................................................................................................191
Summary of Survey Contents & Associated Survey Instruments ............................191
Appendix H...................................................................................................................197
MSCEIT Statistics ....................................................................................................197
Appendix I ....................................................................................................................203
MLQ5x Statistics ......................................................................................................203







vii
LIST OF TABLES
Table
Page
2-1
Study of Emotion from Three Disciplines………………………… 15
2-2
Summary of Key Features of Trait Based Emotional Intelligence

Measures…………………………………………………………… 35
2-3
Constructs, Components and Items of the MSCEITv2.0….………
54
2-4
Constructs, factors and scales of the MLQ5x (short)……………… 63
3-1
Demographic Summary of Manager Population…………………… 86
3-2
MSCEIT, MLQ5x and Associated Item Numbers by

Hypothesis……………..…………………………………………... 92
4-1
MSCEIT Survey Item Details………………….………………….. 97
4-2
Descriptive Statistics of Emotional Intelligence as Measured by the
MSCEITv2.0……………………………………………………….. 98
4-3
Leadership Style Survey Item Descriptions……………………….
100
4-4
Descriptive Statistics of Leadership Dimensions as Measured by

the MLQ5x……………………………….………………………… 101
4-5
Correlation of Emotional Intelligence and Transformational

Leadership Dimensions…..….…………………………………….. 105
4-6
Correlation of Emotional Intelligence and Transactional

Leadership Dimensions……..……………………………………... 108
4-7
Correlation of Emotional Intelligence and Laissez-faire Leadership
Dimensions………………..……………………………………….. 112
4-8
Correlation of Emotional Intelligence Dimensions and Leadership

Outcome Variable of Extra Effort…………………….……………. 115
4-9
Correlation of Emotional Intelligence Dimensions and Leadership

Outcome Variable of Satisfaction………………...………………... 118
4-10
Correlation of Emotional Intelligence Dimensions and Leadership

Outcome Variable of Effectiveness………………………………
120
5-1
Intercorrelation of Emotional Intelligence Dimensions……………. 133






viii
5-2
Emotional Intelligence Factor Reliability Analysis by Item………. 134
5-3
Leadership Factor Reliability Analysis by Item…………………… 135
5-4
Intercorrelation of Leadership Dimensions………………………… 136
5-5
Correlation of Leadership Dimensions as Compared to Technical

Manual……………………………………………………………… 138



FIGURES

2-1
Pictorial Representation of Hypothesized Relationship of

Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style……………………… 70
2-2
Pictorial Representation of Hypothesized Relationship of

Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Outcome Variables………. 74
4-1
Pictorial Representation of Hypothesized Relationship of

Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style……………………… 103
4-2
Pictorial Representation of Hypothesized Relationship of

Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Outcome Variables………. 113