Analysis of Optimum Solution to Enhance Utilization of ICT services at the Grassroots Community: The Case Study of Dodoma Municipal Council in Tanzania.

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International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 12, December 2014
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ISSN 2250-3153
Effective human resource utilization for service delivery
improvement: The need to re-balance organizational and
an employee's objectives realization.
Kisumbe, L ;Sanga, D ;Kasubi, J.W
Local Government Training Institute (LGTI), P.O.Box 1125, Dodoma, Tanzania.
Abstract- The paper presents an analysis on human resources
qualified and committed human resource as drivers of other
utilization and the need to re-balance the realization of
resources.
organizational and employee's objectives. A sample of 40
In Tanzania the emphasis on the importance of human
employees was drawn for the purpose of the study of which 10
resources as a key source of development in the country was put
respondents were drawn from Local Government Training
forward by the first president of the country who pointed out that
Institute (LGTI) and 30 from Prime Minister's Office-Region
"everybody wants development; but not everybody understands
Administration and Local Government (PMO-RALG).
and accepts the basic requirements for development. The biggest
Questionnaires and interview guides were employed in
requirement is hard work. Let us go to the villages and talk to
collecting primary data. Also, secondary data were collected
our people and see whether or not it is possible to work hard....
from various sources with the aim of identifying the gaps to fill
It would be more appropriate for us to spend time in the village
in. The data were analyzed through the use of SPSS version 11.0.
showing the people how to bring about development rather than
The findings in a great extent revealed ineffective human
going on so many long and expensive journeys abroad in search
resource utilization in government offices, the drivers being the
of development money" (Nyerere, 1977:32).
least utilized. The reasons include inter-alia:- assignment of
On the basis of the above views, hard work, accompanied by
inadequate works to employees, Perdiems allowance triggering
increasing the number of working hours is among the
employees to keep on soliciting for the same and truancy
indispensable requirements for development. The focus by then
accompanied with lack of clear close follow up.
was to utilize the idle manpower in the search of development.
Moreover, it was learned that government offices do not
However, despite the above fact, yet there are various problems
balance the realization of organizational and employee's
hindering the effective utilization of an employee in the
objectives. The organizations had not identified employees'
organization. This has been supported by David Hume, of the
needs; there were no clear and reliable incentive schemes.
18th century, as quoted by URT (2004), who declared that the
Furthermore, training which could have been perceived as an
main problem with the Africans is that they don't have what it
attempt to balance between the two, was affected by lack of
takes to get organized.
transparency in selecting the candidates, hence, it was rather
In other words ineffective human resources utilization by
depending on dyadic relationship between the two.
various organizations results from inability to organize and
In order to address the above situation, the following are
sensitize the human resources for achievement of organizational
among the recommended steps:- development of clear and
goals.
reliable incentive schemes; undertake job descriptions reviews to
Since
independence, various government departments,
widen the scope and identification of employees' objective and
agencies and institutions have been committing and spending
preparation of plans for its realization.
enormous amount of money in training to improve human
resource productivity which would in turn lead to service
Index Terms- Effectiveness, human resource utilization, service
delivery improvement in particular and poverty alleviation in
delivery improvement,
Re-balancing the organizational and
general, yet service delivery improvement has not been realized.
employee's objectives.
This is supported by Maliyamkono and Manson (2006:372) who
pointed out that a third of Tanzanians are living in absolute
poverty, while some 20% in abject poverty.
I.
INTRODUCTION
In conjunction with the training, other deliberate efforts
undertaken by various organizations in the world include among
mployees are very important assets of an organization whose
Ewell management together with commitment and other things: - how to treat, perceive and manage employees of
employment of other assets of the organization, facilitate to the
the organization.
In attempt to realize the above, management of employees in
realization of the organizational objectives. It is through their
the organizations started in 19th and early 20th century by
deliberate efforts other assets like machines can be used to
employers with paternalist outlook who appointed welfare
produce the expected products. In other words, no matter how
much is invested in technology and other modern assets, the
officers to manage series of initiatives designed to make life less
achievement of organizational goals and realization of its
harsh for their employees through the designing and provision of
objectives, highly depends on the effective utilization of
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unemployment benefits, sick pay leave and subsidized housing
promote mutuality; mutual goals, mutual influence, mutual
(Torrington, 2008:11).
respect, mutual rewards and mutual responsibility. The theory is
Other factors led into the need to manage employees in
that policies of mutuality will elicit commitment which in turn
organizations included the need to increase labour productivity
will yield both greater economic performance and greater human
during the first world war; development and recognition of
development.
Moreover,
Graham
and
Bennett
(1998:3)
personnel management as a valuable discipline in 1960s and
emphasized that resources should be used in such a way
intense business competition which led to great dependence on
employer obtains the greatest possible benefits from their
technologies leading to the need of employing multi skilled
abilities
and
the
employees
obtain
both
materials
and
labour to apply the said technology in the production of goods
psychological rewards.
and services (Graham and Bennett, 1998:3). Generally, these led
Organizations
hire
employees
in
order
to
tap
their
to development and recognition of personnel management as
capabilities and potentialities for achievement of organizational
important discipline in managing organizations.
goals and realization of the objectives. On the other hand,
However, personnel management faced the following
employees accept the offer of employment on the assumption
weaknesses;-
regarding
organizational
employees
and
that in due course of their employment, they will realize their
categorizing them like any other factors of production and
objectives. It is the management role to ensure that they direct
regarding employees' training as a cost, rather than investment. It
their employees to the realization of the organizational objectives
did not recognize the importance of employees as sources of
while at the same time facilitating the realization of individual's
production, organizer and mover of factors of production.
objectives.
As a result, human resources management concepts were
In other words, human resource management is not an end
introduced in 1990s with a focus to reverse the above situation.
itself but rather only a means to assist the organization with its
Armstrong (2005:23) points out that today, many pressures are
primary objective. On the other hand, there are individual
demanding a broader, more comprehensive and more strategic
employee objectives associated with the achievements of the
perspective with regards to the organization's human resources.
organizational objectives. According to Aswathapa (2008:8),
These pressures create a need for a longer term perspective in
personal objectives are to be met if workers are to be maintained,
managing people and consideration of people as potential assets
retained and motivated. Otherwise, employees' performance and
rather than merely variable costs; they are valued assets and are
satisfaction
may decline
and
employees
may leave
the
sources of competitive advantage, through their commitment,
organization.
adaptability and high level skills, improved performance can be
Organization managers and supervisors have the major role
realized. It is a management function that helps managers to
of ensuring that there is a deliberate effort to balance the
recruit, select, train, and develop members for an organization
organizational with the individual employee objectives. It is
(Aswathapa, 2008:5).
through it that the organizer of other resources becomes
Skipping the application of human resource management can
committed and hence, strives to achieve the organizational
lead into the following problems:- hiring wrong persons for
objective. In this regards, Purcell (2003) as quoted by Armstrong
vacant posts; experience higher turnover; employees not doing
(2005:5) points out that the enhancement of motivation and
their best; waste time with useless interview; breach of laws;
commitment of human resources has to be concerned with
have some employees thinking their salaries are unfair and
discretionary behaviour, which refers to the choices that people
inequitable relative to others in the organization ( Desler,
at work often have the way they do the job and the amount of
2008:3).
effort, care, innovation and productive behaviour they display.
Human resource managers are first concerned with ensuring
Torrington (2008:20) defines psychological contract as the
that the business is appropriately staffed and thus able to draw on
expectations that employees have about the roles that they play
human resources it needs. It involves designing organization
and what the employer is prepared to give in turn. It comprises
structure, identifying under what types of contracts employees
broader but undocumented expectations.
will work, before recruiting, selecting and developing the people
In cases where management does not carefully manage
required to fill the roles: the right people with the right skills to
human
resources,
notable
divergence
from organizational
their services when needed (Torrington, 2005: 7).
objective realization may occur. In such a situation, there is a
However, human resource management is regarded by some
likelihood that employees can concentrate towards realizing
personnel managers as just a set of initials or wine in new bottles.
individual objectives, with little or no effort at all in realization
It could indeed be no more and no less than another name for
of organizational objective. On other hand, in case employers
personnel management; but as usually perceived, at least it has
focus
and
direct
the
employees
towards
realization
of
the virtue of emphasizing the virtue of treating people as key
organizational objectives with little or no consideration to
resources, the management of which is a direct concern of top
employees' objectives, employees' commitment is hard to
management as a part of strategic planning process of the entire
realize. Therefore, there is a need for management to constantly
enterprise (Armstrong, 2006:18).
manage their employees in a way that
there is congruence
According to Torrington (2005: 4), managing resourceful
between individual and organizational goal/objective.
human, requires a constant re-balancing between meeting the
Despite the fact that many authors are debating about getting
human aspiration of the people and meeting the strategic and
employees' commitment, only few of them, including Nyerere,
financial needs of the business.
the father of Tanzania nation who discussed about the necessity
Walton as quoted by Armstrong (2005:25) points out that
of increasing working hours. He pointed out that it would be
human resource management is composed of policies that
appropriate to ask our farmers, especially the men, how many
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weeks a year they work. Many do not work even for half as many
On the other hand, random sampling technique was
hours as the wage earner does (Nyerere, 1977:29).
employed to collect data from 28 respondents including 10
members of academic staff and 6 non academic staff of the
1.1 Statement of the Problem and justification
institute. Also, the technique used to collect data from 8 PMO-
Organizations
hire
employees
in
order
to
tap
their
RALG officers and 4 supporting staffs.
capabilities and potentialities for achievement of organizational
This study relied on both primary and secondary data.
goals and realization of the objectives. On the other hand,
Documentary reviews on human resources management was
employees accept the offer of employment on the assumption
made
from
various
literatures.
Moreover,
administered
that in due course of their employment, they will realize their
questionnaires and interviews were employed for collecting
objectives. It is therefore, the management role to ensure that
primary data on the effective human utilization and the need to
they
direct
their
employees
to
the
realization
of
the
re-balance between the organizational and individual objectives
organizational objectives while at the same time facilitating the
(Adapted from field data 2010).
realization of individual's objectives. However, so far there are
The primary data were coded, entered, verified and cleaned
no researches on the organization attempts to rebalance the
before analyzing through the use of Statistical Package for Social
realization of both individual employee objectives and those of
Sciences (SPSS) 11.0.
With the use descriptive statistics,
an organization as a way of motivating the employees to work
computations were made to find distribution of responses among
hard.
respondents including frequency and percentages.
Therefore, the paper focused on assessing whether or not
there was rebalancing between organizational and employee
objectives realization.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
In order to examine whether there was effective human
resources utilization in service delivery improvement or not and
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
the need to re-balance between organizational and an employee's
The study was conducted at LGTI and PMO-RALG in
objective
realization,
data
were
collected,
presented
and
Dodoma. A total sample of 40 people was drawn, of which 10
discussed as follows:-
respondents were from LGTI and 30 from PMO-RALG. Both
random and purposive sampling techniques were used to get a
3.1 Human resources utilization in service delivery
sample for data collection. A sample 40 respondents was selected
Table 1 provides a summary of responses on whether
from both LGTI and PMO-RALG. Out of this sample, purposive
employees were fully engaged in service delivery or not. The
sampling technique was applied to 12 respondents, which
data
were
collected
through
structured
interviews
and
included the Rector of the Institute, two deputy rectors, registrar,
questionnaires from 40 respondents amongst being operational
Head of Departments and Sections of:- Local Government
staffs (Drivers, Office attendants, Secretaries and security
Administration and management, Local government
Finance,
guards), academic staffs (Tutorial Assistants, Assistant Lecturers,
Quality assurance, Short course, research and consultancy,
Lecturers and Senior Lecturers) and Officers from both Local
Human Resource Management, Procurement and supplies unit,
Government Training Institute and Prime Minister's Office -
Registry and head driver.
Regional Administration and Local Government.
Table 1: Employees' utilization in service delivery
Responses (n = 40)
Percentage
Yes
35.0
No
65.0
Total
100.0
Source: Field data, 2010
On the basis of the findings in table 1, majority of human
According to the findings summarized in table 1, in the basis
resources in the organizations are not fully utilized in service
of saying yes or no, it was noted that 65% of the total
delivery.
respondents said that they were not effectively engaged in
service delivery in their respective areas of specialization. The
3.2 Reasons for ineffective Human resource utilization
findings tally with Kissick, W (1968) who pointed out that
Table 2 provides a summary of responses on reasons for
traditionally there
has
been
underutilization
of
qualified
ineffective human utilization in the organization. The data were
manpower by "capital-poor institutions," such as universities and
collected through structured interviews and questionnaires from
hospitals, in the service. On the other hand, 35% of them
40 respondents amongst being operational staffs (Drivers, Office
confirmed that there was effective human resource utilization in
attendants, Secretaries and security guards), academic staffs
the organization.
(Tutorial Assistants, Assistant Lecturers, Lecturers and Senior
Lecturers) and Officers from both Local Government Training
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Institute and Prime Minister's Office - Regional Administration
and Local Government.
Table 2: Reasons for ineffective Human resource utilization
Responses (n = 40)
Percentage
Some employees cadre have few works
35.0
Due to high rate of Perdiems , workers like field work rather than office works
22.5
Truancy and presentism behaviour ( Lack of monitoring system)
30.0
Professionism is not observed
12.5
Total
100.0
Source: Field data, 2010
The findings in table 2 imply that there is ineffective Human
According to the findings on Reasons for ineffective Human
Resource utilization; hence it is difficulty to realize the
resource utilization, 35% of the total respondents had a view that
Organizational goals.
ineffective human resources utilization in the organization was
caused by inadequate assignment of works to certain category of
3.3 Numbers of hours spend by different categories of
employees. In an interview with them to clarify the matter, it was
employees in service delivery
pointed out that most of workers had no job descriptions and
In order to identify human resource utilization, responses
most of the time they were dealing with adhoc issues. Moreover,
were sought on the number of hours each category of employees
30% of the respondents pointed out that truancy and presentism
was fully engaged in service delivery. The focus was not the
behaviour accompanied by lack of monitoring system led into
number of hours one was at workplace, but rather, the number of
ineffective human resources utilization. On top of it, 22.5% of
hours per day an employee is fully engaged in service delivery.
them stated that high rate of perdiem allowances triggered
Table 3 provides a summary of responses on the number of hours
employees to constantly keep searching for field rather than
officers, office attendants and drivers were fully engaged in
office works.
service delivery. The data were collected through structured
Basing on the above findings, reasons for ineffective human
interviews and questionnaires from 40 respondents amongst
resources utilization in government organizations include inter-
being operational staffs (Drivers, Office attendants, Secretaries
alia:-
few works to be undertaken by certain category of
and security guards), academic staffs (Tutorial Assistants,
employees, truancy and presentism behaviour and high rate of
Assistant Lecturers, Lecturers and Senior Lecturers) and Officers
perdiem
triggering workers to scramble for field rather than
from both Local Government Training Institute and Prime
office works. Moreover, the findings seem to correspond with
Minister's Office - Regional Administration and Local
David Hume (2004) who declared that the main problem with the
Government.
Africans is that they don't have what it takes to get organized.
Table 3: Numbers of hours spend by different categories of employees in service delivery
Responses (n = 40)
Officers
Office attendants
Drivers
Percentage
Percentage
Percentage
1-2 hours
2.5
5.0
40.0
3-4 hours
15.0
65.0
27.5
5-6 hours
70.0
12.5
12.5
7-8 hours
12.5
17.5
10.0
Above 8
-
-
7.5
No response
-
-
2.5
Total
100.0
100.0
100.0
Source: Field data, 2010
per day. However, 12.5% of the respondents pointed that officers
The findings on Numbers of hours spend by different
worked for an average of 7 to 8 hours.
categories of employees in service delivery shows that 70% of
Moreover, table 3 also shows that 65% of the total
the total respondents confirmed that officers of all levels were
respondents asserted that office attendants worked effectively for
fully engaged in service delivery for an average of 5 to 6 hours
an average of 3 to 4 hours per day. On the other hand, 12.5%
per day. It was also explained that the remaining hours were
respondents declared that office attendants in public office
spent in attending personal issues such as conversation with other
worked for about 5 to 6 hours per day.
employees, tea and lunch break. Also, 15% of the respondents
Furthermore, the findings show that 40% of the respondents
were of the view that officers worked for average of 3 to 4 hours
declared that drivers in government offices were effectively
utilized in service delivery for about 1 to 2 hours per day. On the
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other hand, 27.5% of them perceived that drivers were
to 6 hours per day). The findings confirm with the Nyerere's
effectively utilized in service delivery for almost 3 to 4 hours per
views who pointed out that it would be appropriate to ask our
day.
However, 10% of them asserted that drivers were fully
farmers, especially the men, how many weeks a year they work;
engaged in service delivery for about 7 to 8 hours per day.
many do not work even for half as many hours as the wage
The research findings noted among other things that there
earner does (Nyerere, 1977:29). Furthermore, the findings show
was wastage of time due to poor management in some work
that not only farmers, but also government employees fall in the
category. The least effectively utilized work category include
same trap.
drivers, whose effective utilization could be enhanced by
managers reviewing their job descriptions to include other works
3.4 Limited scope of job descriptions influencing working
such as that of messenger and registry. The findings tally with
hours
Ashkenas, R. and Schaffer, R. (2011) who said that although
Table 5 provides a summary of responses on whether or not
managerial time wasting was recognized as enormous long
limited scope of job descriptions influences the number of hours
before any one thought of quality circles. The problem remained
employees spend at workplaces. The data were collected through
unsolved due to the fact that managers attend long - meetings,
structured interviews and questionnaires from 40 respondents
unnecessary telephone calls and tasks that could be turned over
amongst being operational staffs (Drivers, Office attendants,
to their subordinates or secretaries. As a result, managers failed
Secretaries and security guards), academic staffs (Tutorial
to perform strategic decisions of the Organization.
Assistants, Assistant Lecturers, Lecturers and Senior Lecturers)
On the basis of the above explanations, hours in which
and Officers from both Local Government Training Institute and
employees were fully engaged in service delivery are as follows:-
Prime Minister's Office - Regional Administration and Local
drivers were ineffectively utilized (1 to 2 hours) followed by
Government.
office attendants 3 to 4 hours per day and officers of all level (5
Table 5: Limited scope of job descriptions influencing working hours
Responses (n = 40)
Percentage
Yes
50.0
No
10.0
Not known
40.0
Total
100.0
Source: Field data, 2010
developed job descriptions are communication tools that are
The findings on limited scope of job descriptions influencing
significant in any Organization's success. Poorly written
working hours show that 50% of the respondents confirmed that
employee job descriptions, on the other hand, add to work place
limited scope of job descriptions were among the factors
confusion and make people feel as if they don't know what is
influencing few working hour.
This was supplemented by
expected from them.
examining the job description of a driver which was found to
include the following task: - driving the government vehicle;
3.5 Suggestions on soliciting employees' commitment
ensuring the security of the vehicle; undertaking minor
Table 6 summarizes respondents' suggestions on ways
maintenance and keeping proper records on the use of vehicle by
through which employees' commitment to expand working hours
filling in the logbook. On the basis of it, there is adequate
in particular and service delivery improvement in general. The
evidence that drivers' job description is among the cause for
data
were
collected
through
structured
interviews
and
spending few hours at workplace. On the other hand, 40% of the
questionnaires from 40 respondents amongst being operational
respondents were unaware on whether or not limited scope of job
staffs (Drivers, Office attendants, Secretaries and security
description influenced the number of hours an employee spends
guards), academic staffs (Tutorial Assistants, Assistant Lecturers,
at workplace.
Lecturers and Senior Lecturers) and Officers from both Local
From the above analysis, it is concluded that limited scope of
Government Training Institute and Prime Minister's Office -
job descriptions hinders effective utilization of certain work
Regional Administration and Local Government.
category of employees including drivers. The findings tally with
the study of McNemar, T. (2011) who concluded that effectively
Table 6: Suggestions on soliciting employees' commitment
Responses (n = 40)
Percentage
Increase of salary and allowances
15.0
Appreciation and other rewards
17.5
creating good working environment
22.5
Enhance job satisfaction
27.5
Frequent training
17.5
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Total
100.0
Source: Field data, 2010
respect, mutual rewards and mutual responsibilities. The theory
According to the findings on suggestions on soliciting
is that policies of mutuality will elicit commitment which in turn
employees' commitment 27.5% of the total respondents reveals
will yield both greater economic performance and greater human
that job enhancement among the employees would contribute to
development.
soliciting employees' commitment towards expanding their
working hours and service delivery improvements. Also, 22.5%
3.6 Balancing
organizational
and employee's objective
of the total respondents mentioned good working environment is
realization
among the conditions for imploring employees' commitment in
Table 7 provides a summary of responses on whether the
an
organization.
Moreover,
17.5%
of
them
state
that
organizations balance the realization of organizational and
appreciation, recognition and rewards would influence workers
employee objectives. The data were collected through structured
commitment in job performance. On top of it, the other 17.5%
interviews and questionnaires from 40 respondents amongst
mentioned frequent training as a factor for improving employees'
being operational staffs (Drivers, Office attendants, Secretaries
commitment. On the other hand, 15% of them were of the views
and security guards), academic staffs (Tutorial Assistants,
that salary and other allowance increase would lead to the
Assistant Lecturers, Lecturers and Senior Lecturers) and Officers
attainment of the same.
from both Local Government Training Institute and Prime
The findings tally with Amstrong, M. (2005:25) who pointed
Minister's
Office - Regional Administration and Local
out that human resource management is composed of policies
Government.
that promote mutuality; mutual goals, mutual influence, mutual
Table 7:
Balancing organizational and employee's objective realization
Responses (n = 40)
Percentage
Yes
40.0
No
60.0
Total
100.0
Source: Field data, 2010
between meeting human aspiration of the people and meeting the
The findings on balancing organizational and employee's
strategic and financial needs of the Organization.
objective realization depicts that 60% of the total respondents
said the public organizations did not make attempts to balance
3.7 Organizational attempts to balance objectives realization
between organizational and employee objective realization.
Figure
2
summarizes
the
responses
concerning
However, 40% of them were of the views that the organizations
organizational attempt to balance between organizational and
made
attempts
to
rebalance
between
organizational
and
individual objectives realization. The data were collected through
employees' objectives realization.
structured interviews and questionnaires from 40 respondents
Basing on table 7, although there seems to be an attempt to
amongst being operational staffs (Drivers, Office attendants,
balance the two, majority of the respondents didn't visualize it.
Secretaries and security guards), academic staffs (Tutorial
Thus, this contends also that there were no attempts made by
Assistants, Assistant Lecturers, Lecturers and Senior Lecturers)
employers' to balance the realization of Organization and
and Officers from both Local Government Training Institute and
individual goals, hence this lead to conflict of interest in goals
Prime Minister's Office - Regional Administration and Local
realization.
Government.
The findings of the study does not tally with Torrington, D. e
tal (2005:25) who emphasized the need to constantly re-balance
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Figure 2: Organizations' attempts to balance objective realization
Source: Field data, 2010
Quarter (25%) of the total respondents pointed out that
employees' training supported by the organizations is among the
3.8 Suggestions on striking the balance
attempts made by the Organization to balance between the two
Table 8 recaps the responses on the suggestions to strike the
(organizational and individual objectives realization). The main
balance between the organizational and an employee objectives
argument was although training leads to the achievement of
realization. The data were collected through structured interviews
organizational goals, but at the same time knowledge, skills and
and
questionnaires
from
40
respondents
amongst
being
attitude acquired in the training are useful to an individual
operational staffs (Drivers, Office attendants, Secretaries and
employee in terms of promotion and search for greener pastures.
security guards), academic staffs (Tutorial Assistants, Assistant
On the other hand, 15% mentioned loans offered by financial
Lecturers, Lecturers and Senior Lecturers) and Officers from
institutions guaranteed by organizations as another obvious
both Local Government Training Institute and Prime Minister's
attempt by the institutions to balance between the two. However,
Office - Regional Administration and Local Government.
52.5% of the total respondents were not aware of any attempt
made by the institutions in its effort to balance between the
organizational and employee objectives realization.
Table 8: Suggestions on striking the balance
Responses (n = 40)
Percentage
Development of clear and reliable incentive schemes reflecting employees needs
15
Review JDs, identify employees objective and prepare plans for implementing it
62.5
Establish effective two ways communication
17.5
Those who did not answer
5
Total
100.0
Source: Field data, 2010
According to the findings on suggestions on striking the
On the basis of data in table 8, review of job descriptions,
balance in table 8, 62.5% of the total respondents pointed out that
identification of objectives or needs and preparation of plans for
reviews of job descriptions, identification of objectives or needs
accomplishment,
establishment
of
effective
two
ways
and preparation of plans to accomplish the same as among the
communication
and
clear
and
reliable
incentive
scheme
ways of striking the balance between organizational and an
reflecting employees' needs are among the ways through which a
employee objective realization. Moreover, 17.5% of them
balance between the two can be realized.
mentioned establishment of effective two ways communication
to be among the suggestions for striking the balance between the
two. Also, 15% of the total respondents cited development of
IV.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
clear and reliable incentive scheme reflecting employees' needs
4.1 Conclusions
as a means of striking the balance between the two.
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International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 12, December 2014
8
ISSN 2250-3153
On the basis of the above findings, it was learned that human
Moreover, in order to motivate, retain and contribute to the
resources in the public organizations are not fully utilized in
realization of organizational objectives, there should be a balance
service delivery. The reasons for it include inter-alia: - few tasks
between the two. To achieve it, respondents suggested the
assigned to certain category of employees, truancy and
following: - clear and reliable incentive schemes reflecting
presentism behaviour, limited scope of job descriptions and
employees needs should be developed; job descriptions be
Perdiems allowance triggering workers to scramble for field
reviewed;
employees
objective
identified
and
plans
for
rather than office works. Such allowance is in most cases
implementing be prepared and establishment of effective two
discriminative, leaving majority demoralized.
ways communication.
The ineffective human resource utilization is reflected but
not limited to among other things, the number of hours
employees do spend in actual service delivery. The findings
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show that officers are fully engaged in service delivery for an
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3 to 4 hours per day. Furthermore, assuming they are not on
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Ashkenas, R. and Schaffer, R. (2011) http:\\ hbr.org/ 1982/ 05/ managers-
safari and only engaged government activities, drivers are fully
can - avoid - wasting- time/ ar. Accesed on 5th july, 2011.
engaged in service delivery for an average of 1 to 2 hours per
[3]
Aswathapa, K (2008). Human Resource Management: Text and cases, 5th
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Moreover, it was noted that although organizations provide
[4]
Dessler, G (2008). Human Resource, 11th Ed. Pearson Education Ltd. New
Jersey
training to their employees, guarantee bank loans and pay
[5]
Graham, H. T and Bennett, R (1998).Human Resources Management, 9th
allowances to the employee as a way of contributing to the
Ed. 4edge Ltd, Hockley.
objective realization, yet majority of respondents did not
[6]
Kissick, W (1967). Effective utilization: the critical factor in health
conceive them as attempts to balance between the two. It was
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explained that the organizations neither carried out survey to
[7]
Maliyamkono, T.L and Mason, H (2006). The Promise, Dar Es salaam
identify employees' needs/objectives nor established reliable
University, Dar Es Salaam.
incentive schemes for the employees.
[8]
McNemar, T. (2011) http:\\ humanresource.about.com/ od/ grossaryj/ a/
jobdescriptions.htm Accessed on 5th july, 2011.
[9]
Nyerere, J (1977). Ujamaa: Essays on Socialism, Oxford University press
4.2 Recommendations
Dar Es Salaam
In order to address the above situation, the paper
[10] Torrington, D et al (2005). Human Resource Management, 6th Ed. Pearson
recommends that the employers (especially human resource
Education Ltd. Boston.
officers) should review employees' job descriptions so as to
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(2004).
Property
and
Business
Formalization
Programme,
widen their respective scope. In case of drivers, their job
Government printers, DSM
descriptions should include extra driving activities such as: -
driver-cum messenger, clerical activities and receptionist. Failure
to abide to it, implies that public organizations will continue to
AUTHORS
have a large number of employees who are paid only for
First Author - Kisumbe, L, Local Government Training
attending at their respective workplaces rather than for their
Institute (LGTI), P.O.Box 1125, Dodoma, Tanzania., Email:
performance.
[email protected]
Also, perdiem allowances should reasonably be reduced to
Second Author - Sanga, D, Local Government Training
carter only for necessary payments such as hotel accommodation,
Institute (LGTI), P.O.Box 1125, Dodoma, Tanzania., Email:
daily traveling and meal allowance. Such, will discourage
[email protected]
unnecessary scrambling for traveling and leave enough resources
Third Author - Kasubi, J.W, Local Government Training
for other organizational activities.
Institute (LGTI), P.O.Box 1125, Dodoma, Tanzania., Email:
[email protected]
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