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2. Comparatives Comparatives are used to show the difference between two objects. Let’s say that I have two cars. I have a little Toyota and a big Ford. A comparative is used to show the difference between the two. The Ford is big so we can say “the Ford is bigger than the Toyota” . Because the Toyota is small , we can say “The Toyota is smaller than the Ford” . To learn to use these we need to learn five basic rules.
• Rule 1. If an adjective has 1 syllable we add the ending –er to the adjective.
• i.e. small + er = small er than
• i.e. hard + er = hard er than
The ant is smaller than the hippo.
• Rule 2 . If a one syllable adjective ends with a consonant + a vowel + a consonant you must double the last consonant and then ad –er.
• i.e. big + er = big ger than i.e. fat + er = fat ter than
The elephant is fatter than the giraffe.
• Rule 3 . If an adjective ends with a “y”, remove the “y” and add –ier. i.e. happy –y + ier = happ ier than i.e. funny –y + ier = funn ier than
The girl is happier than the duck .
• Rule 4 . If an adjective has two syllables or more without a “y” then add the word “more” before the word. If the adjective ends with a “y”, you will only add the word “more” if it has three syllables or more. i.e. beautiful + more = more beautiful than
• i.e. expensive + more = more expensive than i.e. satisfactory + more = more satisfactory than
The butterfly is more beautiful than the frog.
• Rule 5 . There are a few exceptions. good = better than bad = worse than far = farther than
• Remember, when using a comparative you must always follow it with the word “than”.
• The Toyota is smaller than the Ford. The Ford is bigger than the Toyota. The ant is smaller than the hippo.
• The elephant is fatter than the giraffe.
• The girl is happier than the duck.
• The butterfly is more beautiful than the frog.
3. Superlatives Superlatives are used to show the difference between more than two objects. Let’s say that I have three cars. I have a little Toyota, a medium size Jeep and a big Ford. A superlative is used to show the differences that exist in the group. The Ford is big so we can say “the Ford is the biggest” . Because the Toyota is small , we can say “The Toyota is the smallest” . To learn to use these we need to learn five basic rules.
4. The ant is the smallest.
• Rule 1 . If an adjective has 1 syllable we add the ending –est to the adjective. i.e. small + est = the small est i.e. hard + est = the hard est
5. The hippo is the fattest.
• Rule 2 . If a one syllable adjective ends with a consonant + a vowel + a consonant you must double the last consonant and ad –est. i.e. big + est = the big gest i.e. fat + est = the fat test
6. The elephant is the heaviest.
• Rule 3 . If an adjective ends with a “y”, remove the “y” and add –iest. i.e. happy –y + iest = the happ iest i.e. funny –y + iest = the funn iest
7. The airplane is the most expensive.
• Rule 4 . If an adjective has two syllables or more without a “y” then add the word “most” before the word. If the adjective ends with a “y”, you will only add the word “most” if it has three syllables or more. i.e. beautiful + most = the most beautiful i.e. expensive + most = the most expensive i.e. satisfactory + most = the most satisfactory
• Rule 5 . There are a few exceptions. good = the best bad = the worst far = the farthest
• Remember, when using a superlative you must always precede it with the word “the”. The Toyota is the smallest. The Ford is the biggest. Brad Pitt is the most handsome. The airplane is the most expensive. Jim Carrey is the funniest.