Determination of Isotopic Abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H and 18O/16O in Biofield Energy Treated 1-Chloro-3-Nitrobenzene (3-CNB) Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

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Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry
2016; 4(4): 42-51
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/sjac
doi: 10.11648/j.sjac.20160404.11
ISSN: 2376-8045 (Print); ISSN: 2376-8053 (Online)
Determination of Isotopic Abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H
and 18O/16O in Biofield Energy Treated
1-Chloro-3-Nitrobenzene (3-CNB) Using Gas
Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
1
, Alice Branton
1
, Dahryn Trivedi
1
, Gopal Nayak
1
, Parthasarathi Panda
2
,
Snehasis Jana
2, *
1
Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, Nevada, USA
2
Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd.,
Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Email address:
*
Corresponding author
To cite this article:
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Parthasarathi Panda, Snehasis Jana. Determination of Isotopic
Abundance of
13
C/
12
C or
2
H/
1
H and
18
O/
16
O in Biofield Energy Treated 1-Chloro-3-Nitrobenzene (3-CNB) Using Gas Chromatography-Mass
Spectrometry. Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2016, pp. 42-51. doi: 10.11648/j.sjac.20160404.11
Received: May 10, 2016; Accepted: June 25, 2016; Published: July 23, 2016
Abstract:
1-Chloro-3-nitrobenzene (3-CNB) is an aromatic halo-amine compound used as chemical intermediate for the
production of several fine chemicals like pharmaceuticals, dyes, agricultural chemicals, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has
drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, etc. The objective of the current research
was to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of P
M+1
/P
M
, P
M+2
/P
M
and P
M+3
/P
M
in
3-CNB using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, 3-CNB was divided into two parts - one part was
denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was treated with biofield energy (The
Trivedi Effect
®
). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated 3-CNB. The GC-
MS spectra of the both control a nd biofield treated 3-CNB indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M
+
] at m/z 157
(calculated 156.99 for C
6
H
4
ClNO
2
) along with same pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and
other fragmented ions of the biofield treated 3-CNB were improved as compared to the control 3-CNB. The percentage change of
the isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+1
/P
M
was significantly increased in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2 and T3 by 11.62,
18.50, and 29.82%, respectively with respect to the control 3-CNB. Accordingly, the isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+2
/P
M
in the
biofield treated 3-CNB at T2 and T3 was significantly improved by 15.22 and 35.09%, respectively as compared to the control
sample. The isotopic abundance ratios of P
M+1
/P
M
and P
M+2
/P
M
in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1 and T4 were changed as
compared to the control sample. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of P
M+3
/P
M
was enhanced in the biofield
treated 3-CNB at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 4.67, 18.69, 31.31 and 6.08%, respectively as compared to the control 3-CNB. The
isotopic abundance ratios of P
M+1
/P
M
, P
M+2
/P
M
and P
M+3
/P
M
in the biofield treated 3-CNB changed with the time. So, the biofield
energy treated 3-CNB might exhibit the altered isotope effects such as altered physicochemical and thermal properties, binding
energy, and the rate of the chemical reaction as compared to the control sample. The biofield energy treated 3-CNB might assist in
designing for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, dyes, corrosion inhibitors and other several useful
industrial chemicals.
Keywords:
Biofield Energy Treatment, The Trivedi Effect
®
, 1-Chloro-3-Nitrobenzene,
Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry, Isotopic Abundance Ratio, Isotope Effects, Kinetic Isotope Effect
43 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Determination of Isotopic Abundance of
13
C/
12
C or
2
H/
1
H and
18
O/
16
O in Biofield
Energy Treated 1-Chloro-3-Nitrobenzene (3-CNB) Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
1. Introduction
Chloronitrobenzenes (CNBs) are aromatic halo-amines
and basically derivative s of monochlo robenzenes containing
nitro group in different positions with respect to the chloro
group. 1-Chloro-3-nitrobenzene or also commonly known as
3-chloronitrobenzene (3-CNB) as shown in the Figure 1 is
one of the iso meric forms of chloronitrobenzene. It is a pale
yellow crystalline solid having a molecular formula
C
6
H
4
ClNO
2
and molecular weight of 157.55.
Chloronitrobenzenes are widely used in the pharmaceutical
and chemical industries as an intermediates for the
production of pharmaceutical s, corrosion inhibitors, azo and
sulfur dyes, herbicides, pigments, agricultural chemicals,
rubber chemicals, photo chemicals, insecticides, and gasoli ne
additives [ 1-6]. 3-Chloroaniline (Orange GC Base), a dye
intermediate can be produced by reduction of 3-CNB.
Pentachloronitrobenzene which is used as fungicide can be
prepared by the exhaustive chlorination of 3-CNB [4-6].
Figure 1. Structure of 1-chloro-3-nitrobenzene (3-CNB).
Analysis of natural abundance variatio ns in the stable
isotopes include
2
H,
13
C,
15
N,
18
O,
34
S,
37
Cl, etc. is a potential
method for the measurement of the flow of materials and
energy both within and among organisms. This is known a s
Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis (SIRA). This method is
universally applied in agricultural, food authenticity,
biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, environmental
pollution, archaeolog y, etc. [7-10]. Isotope effects i.e. tiny
differences in physical and chemical properties of the
molecule are the resultant for the variation in isotopic
abundance ratio between isotopic forms of the molecule.
Isotope effects have an imp ortant role in thermal motion,
molecular spectra, chemical reactions (reaction rate a nd bond
strength), physicochemical properties, chemical equilibria,
etc. [11-15]. SIRA can also be used for the deter mination of
the pharmacokinetic profile or mode of action of a drug
substance, bioavailabilit y of the drug products, the release
profile for the drug delivery systems and also used for the
assessment in relation to patient-specific drug treatment [8].
Among of the other technique like infrared sp ectroscopy,
nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and neutron
activation analysis, mass spectrometry (MS) technique such
as GC-MS is widely used for isotope ratio measurement at
low micromolar concentration level s with sufficient
precision. But when the molecules have molar isotope
enrichments at below 0.1%, specialized instruments, such as
isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS), multiple-collector
inductively co upled plasma mass spec trometry a re usually
used for the measurement of the ratio of natural isotopic
abundances in the molecule [8, 9, 14, 16]. Literature reported
that the peak height (i.e. relative intensity) in the mass
spectra is directly proportional to the relative isotopic
abundance of the sample [17-21].
Biofield is a dynamic electromagnetic field existing in
surrounds of the human body that carries information for
regulating the organism. Literature demonstrated that healing
practitioner has the capability to harness the energy from the
earth or environment, the “universal energy field” and can be
transmitted the bio field energy into any living or non-living
object (s) around the Globe in a useful way. This process is
known as biofield energy treatment [22, 23]. Mr. Trivedi is
one o f t he dis tinguished healing practitioners and has the
astonishingly ability to transform the characteristic properties
of several organic compounds [24-26], pharmaceuticals [27,
28], nutraceuticals [29], metals and ceramic in materials
science [30, 31], culture medium [32, 33] and improve th e
overall productivity of crops [34, 35] as well as to modulate
the efficacy of the variou s l iving ce lls [36-38]. Literature
demonstrated that biofield energy treatment has the
remarkable capability for alteration of the isotopic abundance
ratio in the organic compoun ds [39-42]. Spectroscopic and
thermal analysis of 3-CNB inferred that the physicochemical,
structural and thermal prop erties of 3-CNB, such as
crystallite size, vaporization temperature and thermal
stability were significantly changed due to the biofield
energy treatment. Finally, it was suggested that these altered
properties might affect the reaction kinetics when it is used as
intermediate [6]. Hence, it is hypothesized t hat alteration o f
the physicochemical, structural and thermal properties of
biofield treated 3-CNB might have a correlation with the
changes on the isotopic abundance ratio in biofield treated 3-
CNB. So, isotopic abundance ratio analysis of the both
control and biofield treated 3-CNB using GC-MS was
performed to investigate the influence of the biofield energy
treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of P
M+1
/P
M
,
P
M+2
/P
M
and P
M+3
/P
M
in 3-CNB.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Chemicals and Reagents
3-CNB was procured from Loba Chemie Pvt. Ltd., India.
All the other chemicals used in this experiment were
analytical grade purchased from local vendors.
2.2. Biofield Energy Treatment
The sample 3-CNB was divided into two parts: one was
referred as control where no treatment was provided. The
other part of the sample which denoted as biofield energy
treated sample was handed over to Mr. Trivedi for the
biofield energy treatment in a sealed condition. The biofield
energy treatment was provided by Mr. Trivedi (also known as
The Trivedi Effect
®
) through his uniq ue energy transmission
process to the test product in a sealed pack under laboratory
conditions for 5 minutes without touching the sa mple. After
Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry 2016; 4(4): 42-51 44
treatment, control and the biofield treated samples were
preserved at standard laboratory condition and analyzed by
GC-MS. T he b iofield treated 3-CNB was characterized in
different time intervals denoted as T1, T2, T3, and T4 in
order to understand the impact of the biofield energy
treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the
time.
2.3. Gas Chromatograph - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
GC-MS analysis was performed on Perkin Elmer/Auto
system XL with Turbo mass, USA. The GC-MS was
conducted on a silica capillary column furnished with a
quadrupole detector with pre-filter. The mass spectrometer
was worked in an electron ionization (EI) positive/negative,
and chemical io nization mode at the electron ionization
energy of 70 eV. Mass range: 10-650 Daltons (amu),
stability: ± 0.1 m/z mass accuracy over 48 hours. The
analytes were ide ntified by reten tion time and by a
comparison of the mass spectra of identified substances with
references [42].
2.4. Method for the Calculation of Isotopic Abundance
Ratio from the GC-MS Spectra
The isotopic abundances of the elements are basically
categorized into three types: A elements having only one
natural isotope in appreciable abundance; A + 1 elements
(For e.g. C, N and H) conta ining two isotopes – one isotope
is one nominal mass unit heavier than the most abundant
isotope, and A + 2 elements (For e.g. O, Cl, S, Si, and Br)
having an isotope that has t wo mass unit heavier than t he
most abundant isotope [12, 20, 43]. The natural abundance of
each isotope can be predicted from the co mparison of the
height of the isotope peak with respect to the base peak, i.e.
relative intensity in the mass spectra. The values of the
natural isotop ic abundance of some elements are obtained
from several kind of literature and presented in the Table 1
[8, 12, 13, 43, 44].
Based on the findings from the literature [12, 13, 18-21],
the following method was used for calculating the isotopic
abundance ratio in the current study:
Table 1. The isotopic composition (i.e. the natural isotopic abundance) of the elements.
Element Symbol Mass % Natural Abundance A+1 Factor A+2 Factor
Hydrogen
1
H 1 99.9885
2
H
2 0.0115 0.015n
H
Carbon
12
C 12 98.892
13
C
13 1.108 1.1n
C
Oxygen
16
O 16 99.762
17
O 17 0.038 0.04n
O
18
O 18 0.200 0.20n
O
Nitrogen
14
N 14 99.60
15
N 15 0.40 0.40n
N
Chlorine
35
Cl 35 75.78
37
Cl 37 24.22 32.50n
Cl
A represents element, n represents the number of the element (i.e. C, H. O, N, etc.)
P
M
stands for the relative peak intensity of the parent
molecular ion [M
+
] expressed in percentage. In other way, it
indicates the probability to have A elements (for e.g.
12
C,
1
H,
16
O,
14
N, etc.) contributions to the mass of the parent
molecular ion [M
+
].
P
M+1
represents the relative peak intensity of the isotopic
molecular ion [(M+1)
+
] expressed in percentage
= (no. of
13
C x 1.1%) + (no. of
15
N x 0.40%) + (no. of
2
H x
0.015%) + (no. of
17
O x 0.04%)
i.e. the probability to have A + 1 elements (for e.g.
13
C,
2
H,
15
N, etc.) contributions to the mass of the isotopic molecular
ion [(M+1)
+
]
P
M+2
represents the relative peak intensity of the isotopic
molecular ion [(M+2)
+
] expressed in the percentage
= (no. of
18
O x 0.20%) + (no. of
37
Cl x 32.50%)
i.e. the probability to have A + 2 elements (for e.g.
18
O,
37
Cl,
34
S, etc.) contributions to the mass of isotopic molecular
ion [(M+2)
+
]
P
M+3
represents the relative peak intensity of the isotopic
molecular ion [(M+3)
+
] expressed in the percentage
i.e. the probability to have the different possible
combinations of
18
O and
37
Cl with
13
C,
2
H and
15
N
contributions to the mass of isotopic molecular ion [(M+3)
+
]
Isotopic abundance ratio for A + 1 elements = P
M + 1
/P
M
Similarly, isotopic abundance ratio for A + 2 elements =
P
M+2
/P
M
Percentage (%) change in isotopic abundance ratio =
[(IAR
Treated
– IAR
Control
)/ IAR
Control
) x 100],
Where, IAR
Treated
= isotopic ab undance ratio in the treated
sample and IAR
Control
= isoto pic abundance ra tio in t he
control sample.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. GC-MS Analysis
The GC-MS spectra of the control and biofield treated 3-
CNB are presented in the Figures 2-4. The GC-MS spectr um
of the control 3-CNB (Figure 2) exhibited the presence of
molecular ion peak [M
+
] at m/z 157 (calculated 156.99 for
C
6
H
4
ClNO
2
) along with four major fragmented pea ks in
lower m/z region at the retention ti me (R
t
) of 11.61 min. This
fragmentation patter n of CNB was well matched with the
literature [45]. The fragmented peaks at m/z 111, 99, 75 and
50 might be due to C
6
H
4
Cl
+
, C
6
H
11
O, C
6
H
3+
, and C
4
H
2
4+
ions,
respectively as shown in Figure 2.