Effect of Substitution of Artemia salina Protein by Soya Protein in Clarias gariepinus Larvae Compounded Diets: Growth, Feed Efficience and Survival

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International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-3, Issue-3, May-June- 2018
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/3.3.8 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 770
Effect of Substitution of Artemia salina Protein
by Soya Protein in Clarias gariepinus Larvae
Compounded Diets: Growth, Feed Efficience
and Survival
Okoan Alain Achi1,2, Ahou Rachel Koumi1*, Yapoga Bruno Ossey1, Wongbé
Yté3, Nahoua Issa Ouattara2, Boua Célestin Atsé1
1Département Aquaculture, Centre de Recherches Océanologiques, BPV 18, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
2Laboratoire d’Hydrobiologie, UFR Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouët Boigny, 04 BP 322, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.
3Centre National de Recherches Agronomiques, 01 BP 1740 Abidjan 01 Côte d'Ivoire
Abstract Artemia salina, the main first-feeding protein
source of the catfish Clarias gariepinus larvae is relatively
scarce and very expensive in Côte d'Ivoire and it raises the
cost of catfish fingerlings production. To reduce the feed
cost, feeding trial was completed with five isonitrogeno us
(35%) diets formu lated by substituting artemia protein in
control diet by soya protein at 25% (SB25), 50% (SB50),
75% (SB 75) and 100% (SB100) level. Clarias gariepinus
larvae initial body weight 0.0064 ± 0.001 g were stocked
at 1 larvae L -1 and fed with the experimental diets three
times daily ad libitum for 49 days. At the end of the growth
trial, diets S B25 and SB50 present similar growth with the
control diet. The low growth recorded from fish fed SB75
and SB100 highly affected final biomass despite the best
survival rate recorded. Best values of feed conversion
ratio were recorded from larvae fed control diet followed
by SB25, SB50. High levels of soya proteins in diets affect
feed palatability and larvae growth, vigour, motility and
reactivity. Compounded feeds SB25 and SB50 can be used
us low cost Clarias gariepinus larvae diets without
adverse effects on growth and survival compared of
artemia control diet.
Keywords Clarias gariepinus, larvae, soybean meal,
growth, survival.
I. INTRODUCTION
Availability of quality feeds, feeding strategies and control
of cannibalism are essential in Clarias gariepinus larvae
growth and survival [1], [2], [3]. The lack of available low
cost larvae feeds has continued to be a major constraint to
the competitive catfish culture in Côte d’Ivoire [1], [4]. In
fact, Artemia nauplii capsulated cysts which is currently
used as protein source in catfish Clarias gariepinus larvae
feed remains the major constraint in larvae feeding [5], [6],
[7]. This protein source is hardly available and locally
expensive (210.57 USD kg-1) and it raises the cost of
catfish fingerlings production [8]. To reduce the feed cost,
the use of A rtemia in catfish larvae diets must be reduced
as suggested by Siddiqui and Ahmed [9]. This can be
achieved by replacing Artemia salina proteins with
alternative highly available soybean meal. Soybean meal
has 45-50% protein content and is the better plan t protein
ingredient used as alternative protein sources in fis h diets
[10], [11], [12]. It is also the primary plant protein used in
catfish diets in Africa due to the fact that soya is widely
used for vegetable oil production which increases the
locally available of soybean meal for animal nutrition [13].
Also imported soybean meal has good availability a nd
locally and imported soybean meal are reasonable price
(0.60-0.95 USD kg-1) compared to Artemia salina nauplii.
Results o f lot of feeding trial have shown considerable
success in partial or total inclusion of soy bean meal in
catfish Clarias gariepinus larvae and the fingerlings diets
[14], [2]. According Francis et al. [15], vegetable protein
can substitute fish meal to supply required protein needed
for good growth. However, inclusion levels of vegetal
protein in diet and their e ffective utilization by fish
depending to species and growth sta ge due to the presence
of high crude fiber content and antinutritional factors [16],
[15], [17], [18]. Consequently, high i nclusion of vegetal
ingredients in fish diets could cause slower growth rates,
poor performance and high mortalities [13], [17], [19],
[20]. For effective substitution of Artemia salina by
soybean meal in Clarias gariepinu s larvae diets it’s
essential to determine the optimal level of replacement
which promotes growth and survival. This study assesses
the effect of gradual replacement of Artemia proteins b y
soybean proteins in Clarias g ariepinus larvae diets on
growth performances, feeds efficiency and survival.
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-3, Issue-3, May-June- 2018
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/3.3.8 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 771
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 Experimental diets
For feeding trail, control diet was for mulated at 35%
protein with Artemia salina as the main diet p rotein source
without soybean meal. Then, four isonitrogenous diets
were formulated at 35% crude protein by substituting
Artemia salina in control diet by soybean meal based on
crude proteins as follows: SB25 = 25% of soybean protein
replaced Artemia salina proteins; SB50 = 50% of soybean
protein replaced Artemia salina proteins; SB75 = 75% of
soybean protein replaced Artemia salina proteins; SB100 =
100 % of soybean protein replaced Artemia sa lina proteins
(Table 1). All diets were compo sed and produced with
methodology described by Ossey et al. [19]. Nutritional
compositions of diets were determined and all diets were
stored at -20°C until use.
2.2 Biochemical Analysis
The proximate co mpositions of exper imental diets were
determined according to AOAC methods [21]. Dry matter
(DM) was determined after drying 5g of sample in an oven
at 105°C for 24 hours until constant weight; crude protein
(N=6,25) was determined by Kjeldahl method; crude lipid
of sample was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with hexane;
Ash was measured by incineration at 550°C for 24 hours in
a muffle furnace, crude fibre were measured by acid
digestion following by ashing dry residue at 550°C muffle
furnace for 4 hours, while nitro gen-free extract (NFE) was
calculated by difference. T he gross energy con tents of the
diets were calculated based on their cr ude protein, lipid
and carbohydrate contents usi ng the energy equivalents of
22.2, 38.9 and 17.15 kJ g-1 respectively [22]. Ingredients
and chemical composition of the compounds diets are
presented in Table 1.
2.3 Experimental Fish and Feeding Trial
The experimental was carried out at the hatchery of the
Centre de Recherches Océanologiques (CRO), Abidjan,
Côte d’Ivoire. Three days-age Clarias gariepinus larvae
initial body weight 0.0064 ± 0.001 g were transferred in
aquarium (39. 40 cm × 50. 20 cm × 27. 00 cm), capacity of
50 L and acclimated four (4) days prior to beginning of the
growth trial. Fish were counted and stored at density of 1
larva L-1 in each aquarium. T hree replicates were
constituted by diet and the feeding trial was conducted in
15 aquariums. Fish were fed three times daily (07:00,
12:00 and 17:00 hours) ad libitum for 49 da ys [19]. Every
day, dead fish of each aquarium were removed and
counted. Once a week, 15 larvae were randomly sampled
in each aquarium for total length and wet weight
measured. Then, all larvae were weighed a nd feed ratio
was adjusted to reflect the new fish biomass. At the end of
experiment, all survival fish were collected, weighted,
measured and counted. Missing fish were pres umed to
have succumbed to the cannibalism [23]. During growth
trial, the average water temperature, measured twice daily
was 29.32 ± 0.50°C, average dissolved oxygen content of
water was 04.65 ± 0.60 mg/L and average pH was 07.18 ±
0.30.
2.4 Growth Feed Efficiency Parameters
The gro wth and nutrient utilization parameters were
calculated for each treatment as follows: weight gain (WG)
(g) = final body weight initial body weight; daily weight
gain (DWG) (gday-1) = final body weight initia l body
weight / number of feeding day; specific growth rate
(SGR) (%/day) = [ln (final body weight) ln (initial body
weight)] × 100/ number of feeding day; biomass gain (BG)
(g) = final biomass initial bi omass; feed conversion ratio
(FCR) = total weight o f feed consumed (g) / biomass gain
(g); total weight of feed consumed is obtained by total feed
distributed fewer uneaten food; survival rate (SR) (%) =
(final number of larvae / initial number of larvae)×100;
cannibalism rate (CR) (%) = (number of larvae
missing/initial number of larvae)×100; mortality rate (MR)
(%) = (number of dead larvae/initial number of
larvae)×100.
2.5 Statistical Analysis
Data analysis was performed using Statistica 7.1 software.
All data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD).
Results were compared using ANOVA one-way analysis
followed by the Tukey’s multiple r ange test to compare
differences among treatment means. Significant
differences were considered at p < 0.05.
III. RESULTS
Growth and feed efficiency parameters, cannibalism,
mortality and survival rate of Clarias gariepinus larvae fed
control diet and diets SB25, SB 50, SB75, and SB100 are
presented in Table 2.
3.1 Growth
At the end of the growth trial, final body weight, weight
gain, daily weig ht gain a nd specific growth rate recorded
were significantly (p< 0.05) influenced by the levels of soy
bean meal inclusion in the control diet. These growth
parameters were significantly highest from larvae fed
control diet SB25, and SB 50 which did not differ
significantly (p>0.05) followed by the group of the fish fed
SB75. Larvae fed SB100 recorded the significant lowest
values of these growth parameters. The fish final biomass
and biomass gains decreased with the soy bean meal
inclusion level in control diet. T he significant (p< 0.05)
highest bio mass gain value was record ed from fish fed
control diet (82.21 ± 0.11g) followed by SB 25 (6 9.44 ±
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-3, Issue-3, May-June- 2018
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/3.3.8 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 772
0.12g), SB50 (57.42 ± 0.14g), and SB75 (47.73 ± 0.13g) and
the lowest value was obtained by fish fed SB100 (47.73 ±
0.13g).
3.2 Feed Efficiency
Total quantity of feed used by aquarium and feed
conversion ratio values recorded were affected by the level
of Artemia salina replacement by soybean meal in control
diet. Results showed that quantity of feed used decreased
with the soybean meal inclusion level in diet conversely
FCR significantly (p< 0.05) increased. The lowest value o f
FCR correlated with best feeds efficiency was recorded
from fish fed control diet (01.88 ± 0.29) when the highest
value of these parameters was o btained from fish fed diet
SB100 (3.30 ± 0.18).
3.3 Cannibalism, Mortality and Survival
Cannibalism, mortality and survival rate values showed
significant influence with the level of soy bean inclusion in
control diet. Cannibalism rate values varied between 15.55
and 23.32%, mortality rate ranged between 1.25 and
2.21% while survival rate varied between 68.27 and
83.20%. The highest (p< 0.05) value of cannibalism rate
was recorded from fish fed SB25 (29.75 ± 0.75 %) and
SB50 (29.86 ± 0.66 %), follo wed by fish fed SB75 (25.60 ±
0.40 %) and control diet (23.32 ± 4.28 %) when the lowest
cannibalism rate was observed from fish fed SB100 (15.55
± 0.55 %).
Fish fed control diet recorded the highest mortalit y rate
(02.21 ± 0.01) followed by th ose of fish fed SB25 (01.65 ±
0.14) and SB50 (01.87 ± 0.25), when the lowest mortality
rate values were obtained from fish fed SB75 (01.30 ± 0.01)
and SB100 (01.25 ± 0.12). The significant (p< 0.05) best
value of survival rate was recorded from fish fed SB100
(83.20 ± 0.04), followed by control diet (74.47 ± 5.46) and
SB75 (73.10 ± 0.15) and the lo west values of survival rate
were observed from fish fed SB25 (68.60 ± 0.60) and SB50
(68.27 ± 0.03).
IV. DISCUSSION
At the end of the growth trial, feeds which artemia pr otein
was substituted by 25% (SB25) and 50% (SB 50) of the soya
protein present similar growth with the control diet. Up to
75% of soya protein inclusion, values of final fish gro wth,
weight gain, and daily weight gain recorded were
decreased. These results show that artemia protein can be
substituted by soya protein at 25 to 50% without adverse
effects on Clarias gariepinus larvae growth. In fact, high
levels of soybean meal increase anti-growth substances
and indigestible carbohydrates levels in diets which lead to
slow growth and poor feed performances [24], [25].
Consequently, low growth recorded from fish fed SB75 and
SB100 highly affected final fish biomass by aquarium.
Quantity of fish feed used also decreased with the levels of
soybean meal inclusion. However, best values of feed
conversion ratio were recorded from larvae fed control diet
followed by diets SB25, SB50 and SB75 when diets SB100
presents the lowest value of FCR. T hese results could
show an i ncreasing reduction of feed palatability,
acceptability and digestibility when artemia proteins were
gradually combined with soya protein in diet. Concerning
cannibalism, several studies showed that it’s intensified by
increasing size differences, suitable feeding practices, inter
individual contacts, competition of food and stress [26],
[27], [28], [29], [30], [31]. The low cannibalism value
recorded with fish fed SB100 co uld confirm that soya
protein diet SB100 was not accepted and not palatable for
larvae which consequently reduces quantity of feed use,
inhibits competition of food and stress, and entails slows
growth for all the fish in aquarium. In these conditions,
cannibalistic behaviour of larvae was reduced
consequently in t he groups of fish fed SB 100 and these
groups recorded the highest values of survival rate.
Despite high survival rate recorded with SB100, gro wth and
feed efficiency values show that high levels of soya
proteins in diets affect feeds palatability and larvae
growth, vigour, motility and reactivity. In these conditions,
100% soya proteins diets are not recommended for Clarias
gariepinus larvae growth. Conver sely, survival rate (68%)
obtained with feeds which artemia protein was substituted
by 25% (SB25) and 50% (SB50) soya protein were similar
to the survival rate (67-69 %) of the larvae Clarias
gariepinus fed with commercial high proteins content (56-
57%) diets reported by Yakubu et al. [3]. In addition, these
two diets present similar growth results with co ntrol diets.
In these conditions, artemia protein in 35% protein control
diet can be replaced by 25 to 50% of soya protein for
catfish Clarias gariepinus larvae growth.
V. CONCLUSION
Artemia protein in Clarias gariepinus larvae 35% protein
diet can be replaced by soya protein to 25 and 50% for
reduce the feed cost. Compounded feeds SB 25 and SB50
can be used us low cost nutritive Clarias gariepinus larvae
diets without adverse effects on growth and survival
compared of Artemia dietary control diet.