Evaluation of Atomic, Physical, and Thermal Properties of Bismuth Oxide Powder: An Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

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American Journal of Nano Research and Applications
2015; 3(6): 94-98
Published online November 9, 2015 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/nano)
doi: 10.11648/j.nano.20150306.11
Evaluation of Atomic, Physical, and Thermal Properties of
Bismuth Oxide Powder: An Impact of Biofield Energy
Treatment
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
1
, Rama Mohan Tallapragada
1
, Alice Branton
1
, Dahryn Trivedi
1
,
Gopal Nayak
1
, Omprakash Latiyal
2
, Snehasis Jana
2, *
1
Trivedi Global Inc., Henderson, USA
2
Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Email address:
To cite this article:
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Rama Mohan Tallapragada, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Omprakash Latiyal, Snehasis Jana.
Evaluation of Atomic, Physical, and Thermal Properties of Bismuth Oxide Powder: An Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment. American
Journal of Nano Research and Applications. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 94-98. doi: 10.11648/j.nano.20150306.11
Abstract:
Bismuth oxide (Bi
2
O
3
) is known for its application in several industries such as solid oxide fuel cells,
optoelectronics, gas sensors and optical coatings. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy
treatment on the atomic, physical, and thermal properties of Bi
2
O
3
. The Bi
2
O
3
powder was equally divided into two parts: control
and treated. The treated part was subjected to biofield energy tr eatment. After that, both control and treated samples were
investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy,
and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The XRD data exhibited that the biofield treatment has altered the lattice
parameter (-0.19%), unit cell volume (-0.58%), density (0.59%), and molecular weight (-0.57%) of the treated sample as
compared to the control. The crystallite size was significantly increased by 25% in treated sample as compared to the control.
Furthermore, TGA analysis showed that control and treated samples were thermally stable upto tested temperature of 831°C.
Besides, the FT-IR analysis did not show any significant change in absorption wavenumber in the treated sample as compared to
the control. The ESR study revealed that g-factor was increased by 13.86% in the treated sample as compared to the control. Thus,
above data suggested that biofield energy treatment has altered the atomic and physical properties of Bi
2
O
3
. Therefore, the
biofield treated Bi
2
O
3
could be more useful in solid oxide fuel cell industries.
Keywords:
Bismuth Oxide, Biofield Energy Treatment, X-ray Diffraction, Differential Scanning Calorimetry,
Thermogravimetric Analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
1. Introduction
Bismuth oxide (Bi
2
O
3
) is known for its optical and electrical
properties such as dielectric permittivity, refractive index, large
energy band gap, photoconductivity and photoluminescence [1].
Due to these properties, Bi
2
O
3
play a vital role in the various
fields such as optoelectronics, gas sensors and optical coatings.
Bi
2
O
3
has five polymorphs i.e. α- Bi
2
O
3
(monoclinic), β- Bi
2
O
3
(tetragonal), γ- Bi
2
O
3
(BCC), δ- Bi
2
O
3
(Cubic), and ε- Bi
2
O
3
(triclinic) [2]. Among these phase, α- Bi
2
O
3
and δ- Bi
2
O
3
are the
stable phases, while rest other phases are metastable.
Furthermore, δ- Bi
2
O
3
exists in the form of face centered cubic
crystal structure [3]. The δ-Bi
2
O
3
is known for its high
conductivity among all other phases, which make it best
material in solid oxide fuel cell. Although its application as
oxide ion conductor is limited, because it is only stable in the
narrow temperature range. Recently, the stability of δ- Bi
2
O
3
is
reported to be increased by various kind of dopants such as
Er
2
O
3
[4] and Y
2
O
3
[5] etc. Verkerk et al. reported that
erbia-stabilized bismuth oxides are among the best solid oxide
oxygen ion conductors [6]. In numerous research, the
stabilization of the δ- Bi
2
O
3
was enhanced by doping with 20 to
50% lanthanide ions [7-9]. However, all these process are either
required costly equipment setup or high temperature devices.
Thus, it is important to study an alternative approach i.e.
biofield energy treatment, which could modify the Bi
2
O
3
with
respect to its atomic, physical, thermal properties. Recently, the
biofield energy treatment has gained significant attention, due
to its ability to alter the physical, atomic, and structure
properties of metals [10, 11] and ceramics [12, 13].
95 Mahendra Kumar Trivedi et al.: Evaluation of Atomic, Physical, and Thermal Properties of Bismuth Oxide
Powder: An Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment
Furthermore, a human has the capability to harness the energy
from the environment/Universe and transmit it to any object
around the Globe. The object(s) receive the energy and respond
into a useful way that is called biofield energy, and this process
is known as biofield energy treatment. Besides, the National
Center for Complementary and alternative medicine (NCCAM)
has recommended uses of CAM therapies (e.g. healing therapy)
in the healthcare sector [14]. Nevertheless, Mr. Trivedi’s unique
biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect
®
) had altered the
atomic, physical and thermal characteristics in several ceramics
oxides [15,16]. Thus, after considering the excellent outcomes
with biofield energy treatment on ceramics and the industrial
applications of Bi
2
O
3
, this work was undertaken to evaluate the
effect of this treatment on the atomic, physical and thermal
properties of the Bi
2
O
3
using X-ray diffraction (XRD),
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared
(FT-IR) spectroscopy and electron spin resonance (ESR)
spectroscopy.
2. Materials and Methods
The Bi
2
O
3
powder was procured from Sigma Aldrich, USA.
The procured powder was equall y divided into two parts and
coded as control and treated. T he control part was remained
the same and the treated part was in sealed pack, handed over
to Mr. Trivedi for biofield energy treatment under standard
laboratory conditions. Mr. Trivedi provided the treatment
through his energy transmission process to the treated sample
without touching the sample. After that, the c ontrol and
treated samples were c haracterized using XRD, TGA, FT-IR
and ESR techniques.
2.1. XRD Study
The XRD analysis of control and treated Bi
2
O
3
was
accomplished on Phillips, Holland PW 1710 X-ray
diffractometer system. The X-ra y of wavelength 1. 54056
×10
-10
m was used. Fro m the XRD di ffractogram, the peak
intensity counts, d value (Å), full width half maximum
(FWHM) (θ°), relative intensity (%) values were obtained.
The PowderX software was used to compute the lattice
parameter and unit cell volume of the control and treated
Bi
2
O
3
samples.
The crystallite size (D) was calculated by
using Scherrer equation as following:
D = kλ/(bCosθ)
Here, b is full width half maximum (FWHM) of XRD peaks,
k=0.94, and λ =1.54056 Å.
The percentage change in crystallite size was calculated
using following formula:
% change in crystallite size = [(D
t
-D
c
)/D
c
] ×100
Where, D
c
and D
t
are crystallite size o f control and treated
powder samples respectively.
2.2. Thermal Analysis
The thermal analysis of Bi
2
O
3
powder was done using
TGA-DTG. For that, Mettler Toledo simultaneous TGA-DTG
instrument was used. The samples were heated from room
temperature to 900ºC with a heating rate of 10ºC/min under
nitrogen atmosphere.
2.3. FT-IR Spectroscopy
The FT-IR analysis of control and treated Bi
2
O
3
samples
were carried out on Shimadzu’s FT-IR (Japan) with frequency
range of 4000-500 c m
-1
. The analysis was accomplished to
evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on dipole moment,
force constant and bond strength in chemical structure.
2.4. ESR Spectroscopy
The ESR analysis of control and treated Bi
2
O
3
samples
were performed on Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), E-112
ESR Spectrometer of Varian USA. In this experiment, X-band
microwave frequency (9.5 GHz), having sensitivity of 5 x
1010, ∆H spins was used.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. XRD Study
The XRD is a quantitative and non-destructive technique,
which have been widely used to study the crystal structure
parameters of a compound. Figure 1 shows the XRD
diffractogram of control and treated Bi
2
O
3
samples. It can be
observed that the control sample showed the crystalline peaks
at Bragg angle (2θ ) 27.08°, 27.68°, 32.70°, 32.93°, 34.70°,
37.24°, 46.03°, and 52.08 °. However, the treated sa mple
showed the peaks at Bragg’s angle 27.17°, 27.79°, 32.82°,
33.03°, 34.84°, 37.39°, 46.09°, and 52.17°. It indicated that
the XRD peaks were shifted toward higher angles in the
treated sample as compared to control, after biofield energy
treatment. It is reported that the reduction in lattice parameter
and unit cell volume lead to shifting of the XRD peaks toward
higher angles [17]. The XRD data of the co ntrol and treated
samples were analyzed using PowderX software. The crystal
structure parameters such as lattice parameter, unit cell
volume, density, and molecular weight were computed and
presented in Table 1. T he data showed that the lattice
parameter of treated sample was decreased from 5.6596 Å to
5.6487Å. Kumar et al. reported that the XRD peaks can shift
to the higher side if larger radii atoms are replaced by smaller
radii atoms [18].
Nevertheless the unit cell volume of treated Bi
2
O
3
powder
was decreased by 0.58% as compared to control. T hus, the
decrease in lattice parameter and unit cell volume were
supported by shifting of XRD peaks toward higher angles.
Hence, based on shifting of XRD peaks and reduction in th e
lattice para meter, it is assumed that the biofield treatment
might induce compressive stress in treated Bi
2
O
3
powder and
this might be responsible for the internal strain in treated
Bi
2
O
3.
Ekhelikar et al. reported that the lattice para meter of
Bi
2
O
3
unit cell was reduced from 5.560 Å to 5.540 Å when the
doping composition of Y
2
O
3
was increased from 10 to 20% in
Bi
2
O
3
and increased the stability of δ- Bi
2
O
3
[19]. Thus, it is
American Journal of Nano Research and Applications 2015; 3(6): 94-98 96
assumed that the decrease in lattice parameter of Bi
2
O
3
after
biofield treatment might increase the stability of δ- Bi
2
O
3
.
Moreover, the reduction in unit cell volume led to the increase
in density of treated Bi
2
O
3
powder by 059% as compared to
the control. The molecular weight of the treated Bi
2
O
3
powder
was reduced by 0.57% as compared to the control. Besides,
the crystallite size of treated Bi
2
O
3
was increased from 85.10
nm (control) to 106.39 nm after biofield treatment. It indicated
that the crystallite size was significantly increased by 25% as
compared to the control. It is possible that the neighboring
crystalline plane reoriented themselves in the same plane and
increased the crystallite size. Li et al. reported that the
crystallite size of Bi
2
O
3
containing compound was increased
with increased in sintering time [20]. It is also mentioned that
the increase in crystallite size caused an increase in ionic
conductivity in Bi
2
O
3
. Thus, based on this, it is assumed that
the increase in crystallite size in treated Bi
2
O
3
may lead to
increase the ionic conductivity. It could be due to the reduction
of crystallite boundaries in treated Bi
2
O
3
as compared to
control since an increase in crystallite size decrease the
crystallite boundaries. Therefore, the increase in ionic
conductivity and stability of Bi
2
O
3
could play a major role in
the enhancement of efficiency of the solid oxide fuel cell.
Fig. 1. X-ray diffractogram of bismuth oxide powder.
Table 1. Effect of biofield energy treatment on lattice parameter, unit cell volume density, molecular weight, and crystallite size of bismuth oxide powder.
Group Lattice parameter (Å) Unit cell volume
(× 10
-23
cm
3
)
Density
(g/cc)
Molecular weight
(g/mol)
Crystallite size
(nm)
Control 5.6596 18.13 8.6097 470.04 85.10
Treated 5.6487 18.02 8.6599 467.32 106.39
% Change -0.19 -0.58 0.59 -0.57 25
3.2. Thermal Analysis
The analysis result of TGA are presented in Table 2. The
data exhibited that both the control and treated sample were
started weight loss at temperature around 50°C. The control
sample lost around 0.22% upto temperature 335°C. After that,
the control sample stared to gain the weight and which led to
increase the weight by 0.2% upto temperature 821°C and so
on. It indicated that control sample was thermally stable.
However, the treated sample started to lose its weight at 50°C
that continued till 660°C. In this process, the sample lost
around 1.7% of its initial weight. The weight loss in
temperature upto 335°C in control and treated sample could be
due to the elimination of water from the samples. Klinkova et
al. had studied the ther mal behavior o f Bi
2
O
3
, where it was
reported that the sample continue to show weak weight loss
upto 600°C due to the removal of oxygen. It was also
mentioned that the formula unit was changed to Bi
2
O
2.902
after
heating of the sample upto 600°C [21]. Furthermore, the
weight loss observed in control and treated samples were less
than 1.7% which may be due to the loss of oxygen or water,
thus, it indicated that both samples were thermally stable.
Table 2. TGA analysis of bismuth oxide powder.
Parameter Control Treated
Onset temperature (°C) 50 50
Endset temperature (°C) 335 660
Percent weight loss (%) 0.22 1.7
3.3. FT-IR Spectroscopy
The FT-IR spectra of control and treated Bi
2
O
3
samples are
presented in Figure 2. The band observed at around 3439 cm
-1
in both control and treated samples could be due to O-H
stretching vibrations indicating the presence of the water
molecule. In addition, the band was observed in the ra nge
400-700 cm
-1
i.e. 440 and 506 cm
-1
in control and treated
sample could be the characteristics vibrations of Bi-O bond
[22]. In addition, Wang et al. also reported the Bi-O stretching
vibrations at 515cm
-1
[23]. Thus, the FT-IR data did not show
any significant alteration in absorption wavenumbers of
treated sample as compared to the control.