Evaluation of Viability Encapsulation of Probiotic Cuko Pempek

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International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-3, Issue-3, May-June- 2018
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/3.3.4 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 742
Evaluation of Viability Encapsulation of Probiotic
Cuko Pempek
Mukhtarudin Muchsiri1, Basuni Hamzah2, Agus Wijaya2, dan Rindit Pambayun2
1Lecturer of Study Program of Food Science and Technology Universitas Muhammadiyah Palembang, Indonesia
2Lecturer of Doctoral Program of Agricultural Industrial Technology Universitas Sriwijaya palembang, Indonesia
Abstract The purpose of this research made Cuko Pempek
as functional food by supplementing BAL to produce Cuko
pempek probiotic. The existence of anti-microbial and anti-
bacterial Cuko pempek components became obstacles,
therefore it needed strategy to answer two main issues that
was first, still allowe th e existence of capsaicin and alisin
which was caracter impact of Cuko pempek; and second, to
protect BAL in order to survive. The strategy was the
encapsulation prepared according to Sheu an d Marshall,
(1993) and the preparation of Cuko pempek modified from
ID, (2012). The result showed that the encapsulation of Cuko
pempek probiotic with cold storage at temperature of 12oC
produced viability with the average number of cells reaching
the range of 109, 108, and 107 and the shelf life until the 20th
day even some units until the 30th day. The encapsulation of
Cuko pempek probiotic with storage at temperature of 27oC
produced viability with the average number of cells reaching
the range of 109, 108, and 107 and the shelf life until the 10th
day even some units reaching the 20th day, but in the 8th day
there was contamination in 5 ex perimental units, on the 10th
day increa sed 5 contaminated units, and on the 12th day
increased 3 units and on the 13th day occurred
Sacharomyces contaminant on all experimental units.
Keywords Encapsulation Probiotic, BAL, Cuko pempek.
Pempek is a typical culinary Palembang, South
Sumatra, Indonesia, made from wheat flour and tap ioca, and
fish. At this time it has become a culinary industry that
development so rapidly therefore must be balanced with the
provision of equipment distribution and presentation of a
safety, healthy, and comfortable. Cuko pempek is a
companion sauce to eat pempek. But Cuko pempek has
specific characteristics, especially its cuka acid content, tooth
decay (dental caries). This is in line with those proposed by
Hoppenbrouwers and Driessens (1988) that acetic acid
damages teeth twice as strongly of lactic acid. In addition
acetic acid is anti-microbial (Lodovico et al., 2002; Snyder,
However, the anti-microbial characteristic possessed
by Cuko pempek components that is capsaicin and alisin
include weak categor y (Skrinjar and Nemet, 2009).
Although, Zeyrek and Oguz, (2005) states, capsaicin can act
as an effective bactericide. But the study of Farag et al., 1995
concluded that capsaicin from irradiated chilies was still
overgrown with 4,2 x 103/g; 14.3 x 103/g; and 9,2 x 105/g.
Cuko pempek is a food product that has potential to
be functional food by making Cuko pempek probiotik
(Dunne et al., 2001). Cuko pempek probiotic is cuko pempek
containing BAL, and is expected to improve its functionality
(Gardiner et al., 2001; Naito et al., 2008). Probiotics are
supplementary foods that contain living micro-organisms that
provide either human or animal host benefits by balancing
the microorganisms in the digestive tract (Fuller, 1989).
Further Senok et al., (2005) probiotics are living
microorganisms when arranged in certain amounts will
provide benefits for the health of its host.
Encapsulation is the process of f orming a matrix-
shaped layer in which the inner-shaped interior resembles a
capsule wall acting as a cloaking (Vidhyalakshmi et al.,
2009). Gbassi and Vandamme (2012) call the term Probiotic
Encapsulation Technology (PET), in which microbes can be
widely immobilized using semipermiabel and biocompatible
materials that go vern the delivery of microbial cells.
(Vidhyalakshmi et al., 2009 ) encapsulation tends to stabilize
cells, potentially increasing cell viability and stability during
production, storage, and handling.
BAL encapsulation techniques use phase separation
techniques from Sheu and Marshall (1993) and use alginate
ingredients (Anal and Singh, 2007) were selected to conduct
a study of Cuko pempek probiotic.
Lactic Acid Bacteria and Media
L. bulgaricus and S. thermopylus were obtained
from Balai Besar Vateriner Bogor. Lactobacilus was
transferred to media of broth MRSAgar while Streptococus
to media of broth Blood Agar Base. Then spread in the media
agar of petri dish and incubated at 37°C. BAL was harvested
after 18 hours incubation to obtain a BAL cultur e
concentration with a range of 1011sel/mL.
Preparation of BAL Encapsulation
The pr eparation of encapsulation used alginate
natrum (Sheu and Marshall, 1993; Sultana et al., 2000) was
1% (A1), 2% (A2), and 3% (A3) then mixed with BAL L.
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-3, Issue-3, May-June- 2018
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/3.3.4 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 743
bulgaricus (B1) and S. thermopylus (B2) culture solution with
4: 1 ratio. After a flat stirring, the mixture was d ropped using
a 5 mL syringe into a 0.2% tween 80 solution in vegetable oil
in a 1000 mL beaker glass. It was then poured 0.05M CaCl
solution as much as 250 mL rapidly through the edge of the
glass wall and left for 30 minutes. The capsule granules
would descend and the tween 80 solution, the vegetable oil
and the remaining CaCl solution were removed by pouring
slowly. The capsule granules were centrifuged at 350x for 15
minutes and then poured into a filter dish and washed with
aquades. The preparation of Probiotic encapsulation was with
three replications.
The Preparation of Cuko pempek
The preparation o f Cuko pe mpek was accordin g to
ID (2012), brown sugar, garlic, cayenne and red chili
mashed, and salt. Sour source wa s used yakult. Chili and salt
blend and then mixed yakult and fermented for one week (7
days). Then water and sugar were heated to boil, removed
and filtered. Then the fer mented chili and yakult were fed
into the filtered sugar water mixture, plus the fine garlic. The
mixture was heated to boiling and cooled, then Cuko pempek
was produced.
The Preparation of Encapsulation of probiotic Cuko
500mL cuko pempek put i n a container of plastic
cans size 2000mL as much as the amount of treatment with
three replications. Then encapsulation probiotic BAL
inserted into Cuko pempek. Some were stored at a
temperature of 12oC and some were at temperature of 27oC.
Observation of viability Encapsulation of probiotic Cuko
Proactive observation of p robiotic Cuko pempek
encapsulation during storage on 1st day, 10th day, 20th day,
and 30th day. Other parameters; shelf life and pH based on
A. BAL Viability of Cuko Pempek in Cold Temperature
of 12oC The results of diversity anal ysis of encapsulation of
probiotic Cuko pempek at storage temperature of 12oC, t hat
alginate concentration, BAL type, interaction, and treatment
combination had no significant effect o n BAL cell viability.
While the group was very significant effect. This meant that
alginate concentration did not affect BAL cell viability and
was reliable for the encapsulation of probiotic Cuko pempek
(Sheu and Marshall, 1993; Lotus et al., 2000; Mokarram et
al., 2009; Lotfipour et al., 2012; Wikstrom, 2013), as well as
the types of BAL (Speck an d Myers, 1946; Drakes et al.,
2004; Denou et al., 2008; Jimenez et al., 2010). The average
number of B AL cells on the first da y was 10 9 for L.
bulgaricus (B1) and 108 for S. thermopylus (B2), then the
average number of BAL cells both B1 and B2 on the 10th
day, the 20th day, and the 30th day is sequential 108, 107
serta 107 and 106. The average number of BAL cells was
eligible to act as probiotic requiring an average number of
BAL cells before consumption of 10 7. As, Ishibashi and
Shimamur, 1993) suggests, called probiotic food, should
contain probiotic cells before consumption of ≥ 107 cells per
gram or per-mL of the product. Meanwhile, Lee and
Salminen, (1995) require for probiotic drink products to
contain as big a cell ≥ 105 per mL of prod uct. While
FAO/WHO, (20 02) requires the number of probiotic cells
before consumption by 106 - 107 CFU/g or CFU/mL.
For storage of Cuko Pempek at cold temperature of
12oC, BAL viability decreased linearly in ten days
observation down by one log as in A1B1, A2B1, and A2B2 was
obtained on observation the 30th day of the average number
of BAL cells by 106. This was caused by two things, first,
because the B AL cells were stored in calcium alginate
capsules; second, BAL cells were better protected from less
favorable environmental influences such as acidity, the
presence of capsaicin components of chili and the alisin
component of garlic. As Sheu and Marshall, (1993) assert
that encapsulated BAL cells h ave viability for up to 2 weeks
and t heir viability i s 4 0-45% higher than un-encapsulated
BAL cells; Sultana et al., (2000), Encapsulation improves
viability for up to 8 weeks. Wikstrom, (2013), that
encapsulation provides cell viability capability for long
periods of time. Furthermore, Gbassi and Vandamme, ( 2012)
there are two reasons for encapsulation, first, to ensure the
viability of e ncapsulated probiotic cells; and second, to
ensure the release of probiotic cells when consumed and
within the digestive tract. On the other hand, Lotfipour et al.,
(2012) explains that BAL encapsulation made from alginate
provides better viability in acidic conditions. This confirms
why the viabilit y of BAL cells in Cuko pempek
encapsulation had good viability.
Pattern of BAL cell viability red uction that was
encapsulated with calcium alginate ingredients in cold
storage temperature of 12oC, was shown in Figure 1, that
A3B1 (alginate 3% and L. bulgaric us) had the highest
viability on average in the four consecutive observation
points in sequence 4,60x109; 1,09x108; 4,96x106; and
2,43x107; while the lo west was in A1B2 (alginate 1% and S.
thermopylus) with average at the four in sequence 6,55x108;
4,07x107; 4,18x107; and 7,16x107. The average number of
cells met the probiotic requirements before consumption.
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-3, Issue-3, May-June- 2018
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/3.3.4 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 744
Fig.1: Graph of BAL Viability at Temperature Storage 12oC
However, storage at cold temperatures of 12 oC
supported the viability of BAL cells. As the result of the
research of Sheu and Marshall, (1993) that the encapsulation
of BAL cells stored at cold temperatures had better viability.
This pattern of decreased viability was similar to that
described b y Iyer and Kailasapathy, (2005) that BAL
viability stored at cold temperatures decreases from 108 to
107 at the 2nd week and to 106 and 107 at the 4th week.
Furthermore, the results of the analysis of diversity
with observations on the 1st day, 10th day, 20th day and 30th
day, alginate concentration ( A) and probiotic type (B) to pH
encapsulation probiotik Cuko pempek at storage temperature
of 12oC, that the concentration alginate and its interactions
had no significant effect, the type of probiotics, combinations
of treatments a nd groups had a very significant effect. This
was due to the presence of probiotic activity o ver time which
results in changes in pH.Roberts et al., (1994) B. longum
BB-79 encapsulation after 10 days had a pH of 3,9 - 4,2; Iyer
and Kailaspathy, (2005) encapsulation of L. acidophilus had
a pH of 4,6; L. plantarum pH 5,6 (Ayama et al., 2014).
To look at the degree of difference in each treatment
that had a very significant effect on the pH of further tests, it
was shown in Figure 2 that the pH encap sulation of probiotic
Cuko pempek was very stab le until the 10th day, and
relatively stable until the 20th day and partly until the 30th
day. This showed that during the period of time until the 10th
day there was no significant microbiological activity, then
until the 20th day there was little microbiological activity and
increased activity until the 30th day. As expressed Robert et
al., (1994) that in the encapsulation BAL probiotics begin to
change pH after day 10.
B. BAL Viability of Cuko Pe mpek at Room Temperature
of 27oC The result of diversity analysis of alginate
concentration, BAL type, combination of treatment and its
interaction had no significant effect on cell viability of BAL
encapsulation of probiotic Cuko pempek at storage
temperature of 27oC, while the group was very significant.
The viability on the first day was 108, then the average
number of BAL cells both L. bulgaricus ( B1) and S.
thermopylus (B2) on the 10th, 20th, and 30th days was
sequential 107, 106 and 105. This decrease in BAL cell
viability appears to be associated with a decrease in pH, since
room te mperature induced microbiolo gical activity that
affects pH. Noland and Ar yana (2012) observes BAL
viability i n yogurt, B AL viability dec reases when the pH
falls below pH 4.3. However, the avera ge number of B AL
cells still qualifies as probiotics requiring a pre -consumption
amount of 107 (Ishibashi and Shimamur, 1993; Lee and
Salminen, 1995; FAO / WHO, 2002). However, the number
of eligible BAL cells was only until the 10th day.
Figure 3 about the decreased pattern of BAL cell
viability of encapsulation of probiotic Cuko pe mpek at
storage temperature of 27oC, that A3B1 (3% alginate
treatment and L. bulgaricus) had the highest viability and
lowest available in A3B1 (3% alginate treatment and S.
thermopylus). The viability of BAL cells at storage
temperature of 27oC occured in a lower log pattern decrease.
This appears to be the condition of the room temperature
caused the growth rate and activity of probiotic take place.
Furthermore, the results of t he analysis of diversity,
that the concentration of alginate, BAL type, combina tion of
treatment and its interaction had no significant effect on pH
encapsulation of probiotic Cuko pempek at storage
temperature of 27oC. To see the level of difference of group
effect continued test shown in Figure 4 . The pH pattern from
high condition started pH 5 on the 1st day, then fell to its
lowest point on the 10th day of 3,73 and then up to the the
20th day of 3,87 3,9 and up again unti l the 30th day of 4.
But the increase did not go beyond pH on the first day.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
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