Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Salicylic Acid and Sparfloxacin

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Volume 3 • Issue 5 • 1000186
Nat Prod Chem Res
ISSN: 2329-6836 NPCR, an open access journal
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ISSN: 2329-6836 Natural Products Chemistry & Research
Trivedi et al., Nat Prod Chem Res 2015, 3:5
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2329-6836.1000186
Research Article Open Access
Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic
Characterization of Biofield Treated Salicylic Acid and Sparfloxacin
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi1, Alice Branton1, Dahryn Trivedi1, Harish Shettigar1, Khemraj Bairwa2 and Snehasis Jana2*
1Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
*Corresponding author: Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory
Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd.,
Bhopal-462026, Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: +91-755-6660006; E-mail:
Received July 14, 2015; Accepted August 18, 2015; Published August 21, 2015
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, et al. (2015)
Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic Characterization
of Bioeld Treated Salicylic Acid and Sparoxacin. Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 186.
doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000186
Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Keywords: Salicylic acid; Sparoxacin; Bioeld treatment; Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy; Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy
Introduction
Salicylic acid is a mono-hydroxyl benzoic acid, and naturally
occurring in the bark of willow tree (Salix alba) [1]. It is an important
active metabolite of aspirin, which acts as a prodrug to salicylic acid.
e salts and esters of salicylic acid are known as salicylates that are
widely used as rubefacient and analgesic in several topical formulations.
Salicylic acid alleviates peeling of intercellular cement and binds with
scales in the stratum corneum, thereby loosening the keratin. is
keratolytic eect also renders an antifungal eect as removal of the
stratum corneum suppresses the fungal growth [1,2]. It exerts anti-
inammatory activity by suppressing the cyclooxygenase (COX)
activity that caused to inhibition of pro-inammatory mediators
production. erefore, it is widely used for the treatment of several skin
diseases like acne, psoriasis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, calluses, keratosis
pilaris, and warts due to its keratolytic, fungicidal, bacteriostatic, and
photo-protective properties [3,4]. Salicylic acid is also a phytohormone
and useful in growth and development of whole plant [5].
Sparoxacin is a diuorinated quinolone antibiotic with broad
spectrum antibacterial activity. Additionally, it also possesses a
good in vitro activity against several unusual pathogens such as
legionellae, chlamydia, rickettsiae, mycoplasmas, mycobacteria, etc.
[6,7]. Sparoxacin showed good topical absorption and had excellent
penetration into upper and lower respiratory tissues; therefore it is
extensively used in respiratory infections. It inhibits DNA replication
and transcription in bacteria by inhibiting the DNA gyrase or
topoisomerase IV enzyme [8]. e gastrointestinal discomfort and
CNS eects are the most common adverse eects associated with
sparoxacin [9]. Chemical stability of pharmaceutical drugs or active
ingredients is a matter of great concern as it aects the safety, ecacy,
and shelf life of drugs or drug products [10]. erefore, it is important
Abstract
Salicylic acid is a naturally occurring derivative of benzoic acid, and widely used in organic synthesis and as a plant
hormone. Sparoxacin is uorinated quinolone antibiotic having broad spectrum antimicrobial property. The present
study was aimed to evaluate the impact of bioeld treatment on spectral properties of salicylic acid and sparoxacin
using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control,
and another was subjected to bioeld treatment. FT-IR spectrum of treated salicylic acid showed the upstream shifting
in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 2999 to 3004 cm-1 and 2831 to 2837 cm-1 and C=O asymmetric stretching
vibration from 1670 to 1683 cm-1 and 1652 to 1662 cm-1. The peak intensity in treated salicylic acid at 1558 cm-1
(aromatic C=C stretching) and 1501 cm-1 (C-C stretching) was increased as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of
treated sparoxacin showed a downstream shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 2961 to 2955 cm-1 and 2848
to 2818 cm-1, and upstream shifting in wavenumber of C=O (pyridone) stretching from 1641 to 1648 cm-1. Besides,
increased intensity of peaks in treated sparoxacin was found at 1628 cm-1 [C=C stretching (pyridone)] and 1507 cm-1
(N-H bending) as compared to control. UV spectrum of bioeld treated salicylic acid exhibited a shifting of wavelength
max) from 295.8 to 302.4 nm and 231.2 to 234.4 nm, with respect to control. Likewise, bioeld treated sparoxacin
showed the shifting in UV wavelength (λmax) from 373.8 to 380.6 nm and 224.2 to 209.2 nm.
Over all, the results suggest that alteration in wavenumber of IR peaks in treated samples might be occurred due
to bioeld induced alteration in force constant and dipole moment of some bonds. The changes in UV wavelength (λmax)
of treated sample also support the FT-IR results. Due to alteration in force constant and bond strength, the chemical
stability of structure of treated drugs might also be increased, which could be benecial for self-life of bioeld treated
drugs.
to nd out an alternate approach, which could enhance the stability of
drugs by changing the structural (bond strength, bond length, dipole
moment etc.) properties of these compounds.
Recently, bioeld treatment has been reported to alter the physical
and structural properties of various living and non-living things [11,12].
Bioeld is the electromagnetic eld that permeates and surrounds the
living organisms. It is the scientic term, used for biologically created
electromagnetic energy, essential for regulation and communications
within the organism [13]. As per Planck M, electrical current exists
inside the human body in the form of vibratory energy particles
like ions, protons, and electrons. ese moving particles generates a
magnetic eld in the human body [14,15]. Mr. Trivedi has the ability to
harness the energy from environment or universe and can transmit into
any living or nonliving object around this Globe. e object(s) always
receive the energy and responding into useful way, this process is
known as bioeld treatment. e National Center for Complementary
and Alternative Medicine considered this bioeld treatment (therapy)
in subcategory of energy therapies [16].
Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld treatment has substantially changed the
antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions pattern and
Volume 3 • Issue 5 • 1000186
Nat Prod Chem Res
ISSN: 2329-6836 NPCR, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, et al. (2015) Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic
Characterization of Bioeld Treated Salicylic Acid and Sparoxacin. Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 186. doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000186
Page 2 of 6
biotype number of dierent human pathogens [13,17]. It also showed
a signicant impact in the eld of agriculture and biotechnology,
with respect to yield, nutrient value, and quality of products [18-
20]. Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld treatment has also changed the various
physicochemical and structural properties of metals and ceramics
[12,21-23].
By conceiving the impact of bioeld treatment on structural
property of metals and ceramics, the present study was aimed to
further explore the bioeld treatment on two pharmaceutical drugs i.e.,
salicylic acid and sparoxacin with respect to eects on their structural
property. e eects were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared
(FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques.
Materials and Methods
Study design
Salicylic acid was procured from Qualigens Fine Chemicals
(Mumbai, India), and sparoxacin was procured from Sigma-Aldrich
(MA, USA). Each drug sample was divided into two parts i.e., control
and treatment. e control groups were remained as untreated and
treatment groups were handed over in sealed pack to Mr. Trivedi for
bioeld treatment under standard laboratory condition. Mr. Trivedi
provided this treatment through his energy transmission process to the
treatment groups without touching the samples. Aer that, both the
control and treated samples of salicylic acid and sparoxacin (Figure
1) were analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy.
FT-IR spectroscopic characterization
FT-IR spectra of salicylic acid and sparoxacin (control and
treated) were recorded on Shimadzu’s Fourier transform infrared
spectrometer (Japan) with the frequency range of 4000-500 cm-1. e
FT-IR spectroscopic analysis was carried out to evaluate the impact of
bioeld treatment at atomic level like bond strength, and stability of the
structure of both drugs [24].
UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis
UV spectroscopic analysis of salicylic acid and sparfloxacin were
acquired on a Shimadzu UV-2400 PC series spectrophotometer
with 1 cm quartz cell and a slit width of 2.0 nm. The analysis was
performed using wavelength range of 200-400 nm. This study
was performed to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on the
structural property of tested drugs with respect to functional groups
and their position.
Results and Discussion
FT-IR spectroscopic analysis
e FT-IR spectra of salicylic acid (control and treated) are shown
in Figure 2. FT-IR spectrum of control sample (Figure 2a) showed
characteristic vibrational peaks at wavenumber 3233 cm-1 and 2999-
2831 cm-1 that were assigned to OH and C-H stretching, respectively.
e C=O (COO-) asymmetric and symmetric stretching were assigned
to IR peaks observed at 1652-1670 cm-1 and 1386 cm-1, respectively.
Further, IR peaks appeared at 1558-1610 cm-1 were attributed to C=C
(phenolic) multiple peaks. e C-C stretching peaks were observed
at 1444-1503 cm-1. e O-H (phenolic) bending was assigned to IR
peak appeared at 1324 cm-1. e COO- (C-O) stretching and C-OH
(phenolic) stretching were assigned to IR peaks appeared at 1296 cm-1
and 1156-1248 cm-1, respectively. e vibrational peaks appeared at
759-669 cm-1 were attributed to =C-H bending. e observed FT-IR data
of control salicylic acid was well supported by the literature data [25].
e FT-IR spectrum of bioeld treated salicylic acid (Figure 2b)
showed the IR absorption peaks at 3233 and 2837-3004 cm-1 that were
assigned to O-H and C-H stretching, respectively. Vibration peaks
observed at 1662-1683 cm-1 and 1558-1612 cm-1 were attributed to
C=O asymmetric stretching and C=C (phenolic) stretching peaks,
respectively. In addition, C-C stretching peak was appeared at 1445-
1501 cm-1 and C=O (COO-) symmetric stretching peak was observed
at 1387 cm-1. e O-H (Ph-OH) and =C-H bending peaks were
appeared at 1324 cm-1 and 760-669 cm-1, respectively. Vibrational peaks
observed at 1296 cm-1 and 1157-1249 cm-1 were assigned to COO- (C-O)
stretching and phenolic (C-OH) stretching, respectively.
Overall, the FT-IR data indicates a signicant impact of bioeld
treatment at atomic level of salicylic acid as compared to control. e
FT-IR data of treated salicylic acid exhibited the shiing in wavenumber
of some bonds with respect to control sample. For instance, an upstream
shiing in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 2999 (control) to 3004
cm-1 (treated) and 2831 to 2837 cm-1; and C=O asymmetric stretching
vibrations from 1670 to 1683 cm-1 and 1652 to 1662 cm-1. e frequency
of vibrational peak (ν) depends on two factors i.e., force constant and
reduced mass, which can be explained by following equation [26].
ν=1/2πc √(k/μ)
here, c is speed of light, k is force constant and μ is reduced mass.
If reduced mass is constant, then the frequency is directly
proportional to the force constant; therefore, increase in frequency
of any bond suggested a possible enhancement in force constant
of respective bond [24]. Based on this it is speculated that the force
constant and bond strength of C-H and C=O bond might increased
aer bioeld treatment as compared to control. Additionally, the
intensity of peaks at 1558 cm-1 (aromatic C=C stretching) and 1501
cm-1 (C-C stretching) was signicantly increased in bioeld treated
sample, as compared to control. is might be due to alteration in ratio
of change in dipole moment (∂µ) to change in bond distance (∂r) [27].
e FT-IR spectrum of control sparoxacin is shown in (Figure
3a), which showed the characteristic vibrational peaks at 3093-3462
cm-1 that were collectively assigned to O-H and N-H stretching.
Vibrational peaks appeared at 2848-2961 cm-1 were assigned to C-H
(CH3) stretching. Further, the vibrational peaks observed at 1715 cm-1
and 1641 cm-1 were attributed to C=O (COO-) asymmetric stretching
and C=O (pyridone) stretching, respectively. e IR peaks appeared at
1586, and 1533 cm-1 were assigned to C=C (benzene ring) stretching
and N-H bending, respectively. e C-H asymmetrical bending and
C=O (COO-) symmetric stretching peaks were observed at 1437 and
1334 cm-1 respectively. e C-N (aryl) stretching and C-F stretching
peaks were assigned to IR peaks observed at 1186-1293 cm-1 and
1151 cm-1, respectively. Further, the IR peaks appeared at 1084, 1029,
and 668 cm-1 were assigned to C-O (COO-) stretching, C-N (alkyl)
stretching, and =C-H bending, respectively. e FT-IR data of control
sparoxacin was well supported by the literature data [28,29].
Figure 1: Chemical structure of (a) salicylic acid and (b) sparoxacin.
Volume 3 • Issue 5 • 1000186
Nat Prod Chem Res
ISSN: 2329-6836 NPCR, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, et al. (2015) Fourier Transform Infrared and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic
Characterization of Bioeld Treated Salicylic Acid and Sparoxacin. Nat Prod Chem Res 3: 186. doi:10.4172/2329-6836.1000186
Page 3 of 6
e FT-IR spectrum (Figure 3b) of treated sparoxacin showed
the characteristic vibrational peaks at 3084-3462 cm-1, were attributed
to overlapped peaks of O-H and N-H stretching. e vibrational peak
appeared at 2818-2955 cm-1 were assigned to C-H (CH3) stretching.
Further, the vibrational peaks appeared at 1715 cm-1 and 1648 cm-1 were
attributed to C=O (COO-) asymmetric stretching and C=O (pyridone)
stretching, respectively. e IR peaks observed at 1628, 1586, and 1533-
1507 cm-1 were attributed to C=C (pyridone) stretching, C=C (benzene
ring) stretching, and N-H bending, respectively. e IR peaks observed at
1437 and 1335 cm-1 were attributed to asymmetrical bending of C-H group
and symmetric stretching of C=O (COO-) group, respectively. Likewise, the
C-N (aryl) stretching and C-F stretching were assigned to peaks observed
at 1289-1186 cm-1 and 1135 cm-1, respectively. Further, the C-O (COO-
) stretching, C-N (alkyl) stretching, and =C-H bending were assigned to
absorption peak observed at 1084, 1030, and 652 cm-1, respectively.
Overall, the FT-IR results of bioeld treated sparoxacin exhibited
the shiing in wavenumber of some bonds with respect to control
sample. For instance, a downstream shiing in frequency of vibrational
peaks like C-H stretching from 2961 to 2955 cm-1 and 2848 to 2818
cm-1; C-F stretching from 1151 to 1135 cm-1; and upstream shiing in
wavenumber of C=O (pyridone) stretching from 1641 to 1648 cm-1.
is slight change in wavenumber of peaks referred to corresponding
changes in the force constant of that bond as compared to control.
Increase in the force constant of stretching peaks, suggests the
enhancement of bond strength and vice versa; likely, increasing in the
force constant of bending peaks referred to increase in rigidity of bond
in a molecule [25]. Additionally, C=C stretching (pyridone) peaks at
1628 cm-1 and N-H bending 1507 cm-1 were not observed in the control
sample of sparoxacin. However, these were signicantly observed in
treated sample. is might be observed due to very low intensity to be
Figure 2: FT-IR spectra of salicylic acid (a) control and (b) treated.