Geospatial Technology Based Rainfall Precipitation Assessment with Landslides in Mettupalayam - Aravankadu Highway, Tamilnadu

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International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-2, Issue-6, Nov-Dec- 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/2.6.4 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 2798
Geospatial Technology Based Rainfall
Precipitation Assessment with Landslides in
Mettupalayam Aravankadu Highway,
Tamilnadu
Ganesh R1, Gowtham B1, Manivel T2
1Department of Geology, Presidency College (Autonomous), Chennai, India
2Department of Earth Science, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India
Abstract The present study reveals that the relation
between rainfall Precipitation with landslides was carried
out. The Precipitation data were collected from IWS
(Institution of Water S tudies) and analyzed for annual and
season wise for the period from 2006 to 2015. The
Precipitation data were interpret tola ted through spatial
distribution methods in GIS an d correlated with existing
landslide locations. The spatial output of rainfall contour
shows tha t larger area of rainfall is covered with higher
amount in Northeas t Monsoon when compared to other
seasons. However, an almost equal amount o f rainfall was
noticed in Southwest Monsoon. The above data were taken
into a GIS. Using this data, spatial interpolation maps were
prepared. It clearly reveals that, high amount of rainfall and
existence of landslides occurs throughout the Coonoor
region and Wellington and Moderate amount of rainfall and
existence of landslides in Kothagiri and Ooty region. This
paper highlights the application of GIS in spatially locating
the relation between precipitation and landslides.
Keywords Geospatial Technology, Aravankadu Highway,
IWS.
I. INTRODUCTION
A landslide is an event of nature that leads to sudden
disruption of normal life o f society, causing damage to
property of nations, to such an extent t hose normal, social
and economic mechanisms available are inadequate to restore
normalcy. Landslides are defined as the mass movement of
rocks, debris or earth along a sliding plane. They are
characterised by almost permanent contact between the
moving masses and sliding plane (Butler, 1976; Crozier,
1984; and S mith, 1996). Landslides cause substantial
economic, human and environmental losses throughout the
world. Examples of devastating landslides at a global scale
include the 1972 Calabria landslide in Italy, the 1970
Hauscaran landslide in Peru (McCall, 1992), the 1966
Aberfan landslide in wales, and the 1985 Armero landslide in
Colombia (Alexander, 1993). It is estimated that in 1998,
180,000 avalanches, landslides, and debris flow in different
scales occurred in China, estimated at 3 billion dollars’ worth
of direct economic losses (Huabin et al., 2005).
II. STUDY AREA
The study area is the Nilgiris district, which is located in
Tamilnadu state. The Mettupalaym to Aravankadu ghat
section of length 273.30 km2 has taken as the study area to
identify the landslide prone areas. It lies in the toposheet
Nos. 58 A/15 o f survey of I ndia and located in between 76°
48’ 8.34’’ and 76°54’ 2.48’’ E longitudes and 11° 17’
41.25’’ and 11° 17’ 47.48’’ N latitudes with an area of
(273.30 km2 ). The study area is blessed with deltaic system
with different active and inactive distributaries and shown in
figure 1. The proposed study area is covered include villages
like Mettupalayam, Odanthurai, Adatturai, Burliyar, Hulical
Drug, Kallar, Killpilur, Marrapalam, wellington,
Aravankadu, Lambs rock and Tiger hill.
III. METHODOLOGY
The base map is prepared from Survey of India (SOI)
Toposheets 58A/11 &15 at a scale of 1: 50000. In the present
study, the average monthly rainfall of a ten years period
(2006 - 2015) have been c ollected from five rain gauge
stations and variation diagrams are prepared. Rainfall
contour map has been prepared of rainfall variation is found
at all the rain gauge stations. The spatial variability of mean
annual p recipitation depends upon the topographic factors
such as exposure of station to the prevailing wind, elevation,
orientation and slope of the mountain (Basist A and Bell
G.D., 1994).
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-2, Issue-6, Nov-Dec- 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/2.6.4 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 2799
Fig.1: Study Area Base Map
Arithmetic mean is used for measurements of selected
duration at all rain gauges are summed and the total divided
by the number of gauges. Arithmetic method is the simplest
objective methods of calculating the average rainfall over
the area (Basavarajappa et al., 2015a).
Thiessen polygon method provides the individual areas of
influence around each set of points. Thiessen (1911), an
American engineer adopted the polygon method for rainfall
measurements at individual gauge s as first weighted by the
fractions of the catchment area represented by the gauges,
and then summed. Thiessen polygons are the polygons
whose bo undaries are mathematically define the area
(perpendicular bisectors) that is closest to each point
relative to all other points (Basavarajappa et al., 2015 a).
Iso-hyetal method is a line drawn on a map connecting
points that receive equal amounts of rainfall. It is one of the
convenient methods that views continuous spatial variation
of rainfall areas. The main aim of the method, to draw lines
of equal rainfall amount (isohyets) using observed amounts
at stations (Reed W.G and Kincer J.B., 1917). In iso-hyetal
map, the x-axis represents East Longitude, while y-axis
represents North Latitude (Basavarajappa et al., 2015 a).
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of post-monsoon, pre-monsoon, sou thwest,
northeast and average annual rainfall data for the period
2006- 2015 were used for the preparation of spatial
distribution contour map using geospatial technology and
the data’s are given in figures 2 to 11 and in table.1.
Pre monsoon Season
During the pre-monsoon season, study area recorded an
average rainfall of 453.83 mm. During this Season, the
highest rainfall of 148.78 mm was recorded in Runneymedu
station and the lowest rainfall of 43.79 mm was recorded in
Gurrency station.
Post monsoon Season
During the post monsoon season, study area recorded an
average rainfall of 1231.04 mm. During this Season, the
highest rain fall o f 347 .22 mm wa s reco rded in Coo noor
station and the lowest rainfall of 162.43 mm was recorded
in Gurrency station.
South-West Monsoon Season
During the SouthWest Monsoon season, study area
recorded an average rainfall of 1435.73 mm. During this
Season, the highest rainfall of 403.19 mm was recorded in
Hilgrove station and the lowest rainfall of 236.31 mm was
recorded in Aderly station.
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-2, Issue-6, Nov-Dec- 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/2.6.4 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 2800
North-East Monsoon Season
During the North-East Monsoon season, study area
recorded an average rainfall of 2934.07 mm. During this
Season, the highest rainfall of 953.93 mm was recorded in
Coonoor station and the lowest rainfall of 351.38 mm was
recorded in Mettupalayam station.
Table.1: Average occurrences of rainfall during various seasons
Stations
Post-
monsoon
Pre-
monsoon
SW
monsoon
NE monsoon
Average
Rainfall
Year
COONOOR
72
368
297.4
1430.6
542
2006
RUNNEYMEDU
56
392
346
1292
521.5
HILGROVE
103
397.6
454
625
394.9
GURRENCY
74
450.8
372
1094
497.7
ADERLY
52
312
198
481
260.75
METTUPALAYAM
7
277
107.9
571
240.725
COONOOR
31.6
131.3
2038.1
662.8
715.95
2007
RUNNEYMEDU
85
143.8
773.8
350.9
338.375
HILGROVE
166
348
1714.2
413.4
660.4
GURRENCY
15.8
54
1470
519
514.7
ADERLY
8
206.1
768.2
528.4
377.675
METTUPALAYAM
33
96
173
314
154
COONOOR
352.9
556.5
492.1
509
477.625
2008
RUNNEYMEDU
499
472
178.6
547.2
424.2
HILGROVE
291.6
329.4
133.7
598
338.175
GURRENCY
136.4
455.8
125
580.2
324.35
ADERLY
236
316
172
422.6
286.65
METTUPALAYAM
44
286
264
300
223.5
COONOOR
10.2
190.9
371.4
1509.3
520.45
2009
RUNNEYMEDU
0
284
264
1473
505.25
HILGROVE
0
257
251
541
262.25
GURRENCY
0
200
142.7
106.4
112.275
ADERLY
0
172
116.1
84.2
93.075
METTUPALAYAM
0
249
153
378.7
195.175
COONOOR
41.6
138.1
342.8
897.9
355.1
2010
RUNNEYMEDU
32
96
161.3
1551
460.075
HILGROVE
7
117.5
134
709
241.875
GURRENCY
4
14.8
104.8
438.6
140.55
ADERLY
4.3
44.7
111.6
147.2
76.95
METTUPALAYAM
16
159.2
209.20
603.90
247.08
COONOOR
654.8
262.5
427.5
1239.3
646.025
2011
RUNNEYMEDU
682.8
161.4
273.5
1100.4
554.525
HILGROVE
762.8
174.8
342
884
540.9
GURRENCY
175.7
37
95.4
248.8
139.225
ADERLY
27.2
24.3
24.2
393.1
117.2