- Glacial Features
Caitlin Spence, Hyun Kyung Park, Makoto Dodo
- U Shaped Valley
Glen Clova, Angus, Great Britain
A valley that forms when a glacier erodes a river valley from its original V shape to a U shape
- Where photograph was taken
U shaped valley
Flat glacial trough; no contour lines
- Cirque (or Corrie)
Llyn y Gadair, Gwynedd, Great Britain
A bowl-shaped depression carved out of a mountain by an alpine glacier
A steep-walled hollow, shaped like a half-bowl, formed by glaciation and frost wedging
Cirques are found in mountainous regions populated with glaciers, or which have had a history of being glaciated
Contour lines suggest height ? mountains, where cirques are found
- Ribbon Lake
Long and narrow, finger-shaped lake, usually found in a glacial trough
- Hanging Valley
A shallow glacial trough that leads into the side of a larger, main glacial trough
A valley most often formed as a result of glaciation, where a large glacier erodes a valley, at a perpendicular angle to the hanging valley, to a deeper extent. The result is that of a small valley intersecting a larger valley at an elevation noticeably above the bottom of the larger valley. Hanging valleys can be, but are not always, eroded by a glacier.
- Hanging Valley animation
Stream leading to hanging valley
Lake carved out by large glacier
A sharp narrow ridge found in rugged mountains
A sharp-edged ridge of rock formed between adjacent cirque glaciers
An arête is a thin, almost knife-like, ridge of rock which is typically formed when two glaciers erode parallel U-shaped valleys. The arête is a thin ridge of rock that is left separating the two valleys.
- GribGoch, Snowdia
National Park in
- Topographic Map of Crib Goch
A high mountain peak that forms when the walls of three or more glacial cirques intersect.
A pyramidal peak, or sometimes in its most extreme form called a glacial horn, is a mountaintop that has been modified by the action of ice during glaciation and frost weathering.
- Mount Wilbur,
Park in Montana
- Topographic map of Mount Wilbur
Glacial moraine at Borrowdale, Lake District, Cumbria
Moraine : a French word that refers to any glacier-formed accumulation .
Terminal moraine : an accumulation at the outermost edge of where a glacier or ice sheet existed.
Recessional moraine: moraine located "behind" the outermost edge of a glacier, formed when the glacier lingers in one spot for a long time.
Ground moraine: gently rolling hills and plains deposited by ice.
Lateral moraine: ridges of till on the sides of a glacier.
Medial moraine: a moraine formed when two glaciers merge (a tributary and trunk glacier) and their lateral moraines come together to form a single moraine.
Push moraine: a moraine created by till that was a moraine deposited by an earlier glacier that once covered the area.
Ablation moraine: a moraine formed from material that fell upon the glacier.
- This ridge along the edge of a field is evidence that this area was covered by ice about 10,000 years ago. It was not constructed, but was left at the front of a melting glacier, as with melting glaciers in Canada or Norway today. As glaciers move, they scrape along the valley floor, eroding large amounts of rock material. They also transport frost-shattered boulders that fall from the valley sides and land on the glacier. When the glacier melts, this mixture of finely-ground rock, pebbles, and large boulders – moraine – is left as ridges both at the glacier “snout” (terminal moraine) and along the valley sides (lateral moraine).