Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Growing Pigs Fed Cassava Peel Meal Based Diets Treated with Exogenous Enzyme

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International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-2, Issue-6, Nov-Dec- 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/2.6.25 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 2973
Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of
Growing Pigs Fed Cassava Peel Meal Based Diets
Treated with Exogenous Enzyme
Torhemen L.N.*, Ikurior S.A., Wuanor A.A.
Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Agriculture Makurdi, PMB, 2373, Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria.
Author for correspondence⃰:[email protected]
Abstract A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the
growth performan ce and nutrient digestibility of grower-
finisher pigs fed diets containing 0 %, 50 %, 75 % and 100
% levels of cassava peel meal treated with
0.035gNatuzyme®/100g CPM. Sixteen (16) pure bred male
Landrace grower-finisher pigs, averaging 31.80kg were
allotted to four dietary treatments in a completely
randomized design such that each pig was housed and fed
individually as a replicate. Four experimental diets T1, T2,
T3 and T4 were formulated and 0 %, 50 %, 75% and 100%
maize was replaced with Natu zyme® treated cassava peel
meal and fed until the pigs re ached 60kg ±2kg live weight.
At the end of the feeding trial which lasted for 7, 7,8 and 9
weeks for treatment T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively, two pigs
from each dietary treatment were randomly selected and
starved for 24hours;faecal samples were collected for seven
days, oven dried, weighed and sampled for digestibility
analysis. Feed intake and weight gain of pigs fed test diets
decreased (p>0.05) while, feed conversion ratio increased
(p>0.05) compared with the control. There was significant
reduction (p<0 .05) in the cost of feed per kilogram live
weight g ain as su pplemented CPM increased in diets of
finisher pigs. Nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude
fiber, crude protein, ash and nitrogen free extract
decreased significantly (p<0.05) while ether extract
digestibility decreased (p>0.05). 100 % maize replacement
with CPM treated with 0.035g of Natuzyme® in 100g of feed
for grower finisher pigs pr oved cheaper though with a
slower growth rate.
Keywords cassava peel meal, Na tuzyme®, growth
performance, nutrient digestibility, pigs.
AbbreviationsCPM- cassava peel meal
I. INTRODUCTION
The pig has been noted to compete with human beings for
available cereal and grains (Adesehinwa et al., 1998).In
view of this development an imal researchers have shifted
their attention to materials that are available but
underutilized as feed ingredie nts for livestock. One of such
materials is the cassava peel, which is underutilized in
Nigeria because it is often burnt or left to rot away on farm s
and homesteads after harvesting and processing of the
tubers (Akinfala and Tewe, 2001). Cassava peel meal
contains up to 5% crude protein, 20% crude fiber depending
on the variety (Aro et al., 2010). The fibrous content of
cassava peel meal has limited it s use in monogastric
nutrition. Hydrocyanic acid, an anti-nutritional factor is also
present i n ca ssava peel. However, sundrying appreciably
reduces its level in the material (Aletor et al.,1997).Dietary
addition of exogenous enzyme like Natuzyme® has been
reported to enhance the breaking down of fibre
encapsulating the more soluble constituents so that
digestion can be effective. Effects on performance of
grower-finisher pigs fed varying levels of cassava peel meal
without exogenous enzyme have been investigated (Ikurior
et.al., 1996).This study was conducted to investigate the
effects of varying levels of c assava peel meal diets
supplemented with Natuzyme® on growth performance and
nutrient digestibility of grower-finisher pigs.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was carried out at the Pig production unit
on the Live stock Teaching and Research Farm, University
of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State of Nigeria. Cassava
peels were obtained from garri processing agro-allied small-
scale industries in Mak urdi metropolis. The peels were
washed and sun dried for seven (7) days to reduce the
moisture content to about 10%. The peels were then crushed
using a hammer mill to obtain cassava peel meal (CPM),
sampled for analysis and stored in bags until included in the
diets.
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-2, Issue-6, Nov-Dec- 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/2.6.25 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 2974
Experimental diets
Four isonitrogenous experimental diets T1, T 2, T3, and T4
were formulated as presented in Table 1. T1 contained 0%
cassava peel meal (CPM) without Natuzyme® and diets T2,
T3 and T4 contained CPM treated with 0.035g
Natuzyme®/100g at 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively as
replacement for dietary maize.
Table.1: Ingredient Composition of Grower-Finisher Pig Diets (g/100g)
Dietary Treatments
T1 T2 T3 T4
Levels of Ca ssava Peel Meal Replacement
Ingredients 0 % 50 % 75 % 100 %
Maize 52.00 26.00 13.00 0.00
Cassava peel meal 0.00 26.00 39.00 52.00
Full fat soya bean 25.00 26.00 28.00 30.00
Maize offal 19.75 18.75 16.75 14.75
Bone meal 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
Common salt 0.5 0 0.50 0.50 0.50
Vitamins/Minerals premixa 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Natuzyme® - + + +
Zinc oxideb ++ ++ ++ ++
Total 100.00 100.00 100. 00 100.00
Calculated analysis
Metabolizable energy
(Kcal/Kg) 3,169.64 2,817.54 2,656.11 2,495.70
Crude protein (%) 16.81 16.04 16.06 16.09
Dietary cost (N/kg) 77.68 62.43 55.54 48.65
aBiomix premix supplied the following per kg of diet: Vitamin A 12,000,000I.U, Vitamin D33,000,000 I.U ,
Vitamin B6 3,500 mg, Biotin 80 mg, Antioxidant 125,000 mg, Cobalt 250 mg, Selenium 250 mg,
Iron 40,000 mg, Manganese 70,000 mg, Copper 8,000 mg, Zinc 80,000 mg, Choline chloride 200,000 mg ,
Calpan 10,000 mg, Vitamin B2 5,000 mg, Vitamin B1 2,000 mg, Iodine 1, 200 mg, Niacin 40,000 mg.
Vitamin E 30,000 mg, Vitamin K3 2,500 mg, Folic acid 1,000 mg ,
b zinc oxide 0.0125 g/100 g, added to supply 100 ppm Zn, ++ = zinc oxide
- = Natuzyme® not added, + = 0.035/g Natuzyme®/100g diet.
Experimental design and management
Sixteen (16) male grower pigs were randomly allotted to
four dietary treatments each of which had four replicates.
Each pig was served drinking water ad libitum. Daily
routine manageme nt activities were cleaning of pens,
provision of experimental diets and drinking water,
observation of each animal to kno w their health status.Each
experimental a nimal was housed in a 183 x75x106cm
welded iron pipe, wire mesh, individual concrete floored
pens while each pen housed four individual crates provided
with concrete feeding and watering troughs measuring
52x29x21cm and 47x37x26cm, respectively. The
experiment was a completely randomized design.
Data collection
The mean weekl y body weights and feed intake were
recorded throughout the exper imental period of 63days.
Feed conversion ratio was calculated from feed intake and
body weight gain. Feed cost/kg gain and feed cost/kg diet
were calculated fro m prevailing local market price of feed
materials.
Nutrient digestibility was determined by the use of two (2)
pigs from each dietary treatment which were randomly
selected and starved for 24 hours.A weighed amount of feed
was offered daily and fecal samples collected for seven
days, oven dried, milled and analyzed for dry matter, crude
fibre, crude protein, ether extract, ash and nitrogen free
extract using standard methods (AOAC, 1995) The
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-2, Issue-6, Nov-Dec- 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/2.6.25 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 2975
proximate analysis of the experimental diets was also
carried out using the same standard methods.
All data collected were subjected to analysis of variance
using the procedure of Steel and Torrie (1980) and where
significant differences were observed treatment means were
separated using Duncan multiple range test (Duncan, 1955)
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The experimental diets contained between 16-17 % crude
protein (Table 1) in order to meet the protein requirement of
grower pigs recommended by NRC (1997).Similarly, the
metabolizable energy of the diets (2,495.70 - 3,169-64
kcal/kg) though reducing as the level of supplemented CPM
increased in diet, were also within the energy requirement
of growing pigs.
Table.2: Effect of Diets containing CPM treated Natuzyme® on Performance of Grower-Finisher Pigs
Dietary Treatments
a,b,c Means within same row with different superscripts differed significantly (p<0.05)
LOS= Level of significance.; NS = Not significant (p>0.05) ; * = Significant SEM= Standard error of mean
The effect of the experimental diets on the growth response
of grower- finisher pigs is presented in Table 2. It was
observed that the diets had no significant effect (p>0.05) on
the live b ody weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed
conversion ratio. Significant effect (p<0.05) was observed
for the feed cost/ kg live weight gain. These performance
indices decreased as percent dietary maize replace d by
CPM increased. This prob ably was due to CPM effect
which increased the bulk of the feed thereby lowering t he
energy density of the diets and causing decrease in weight
gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. T his observed
performance can be attributed to a synergy between the
digestive system of the pig and the e nhanced utilization of
Natuzyme® treated CP M diets by the grower finisher pigs.
This is in agreement with findings of Ikurior et.al.(1996)
who reported that as animals grow older they tend to handle
fibre more efficiently and Ch esson (2001) that enzymes are
a rich source of high quality protein (a mino acids) making
up for the short fall in the low quality of crude protein in
CPM. It has been reported by Beachemin et al. (20 03) that
high producing/ gro wing animals require high level of
available energy to meet the demand for lactation or meat
production over and above maintenance needs, thus
enzymes fed to low energy/ high fibre diets would help
bridge the gap between potential and actual performance of
the animal by assisting to release more digestible energy
from fibrous fractions for use by the animal. T he significant
difference (p<0.05) in feed cost/kg live weight gain showed
that it decreased at higher levels of CPM in the diets.
Therefore, it was cheaper to feed pigs on Natuzyme® treated
CPM diets than the control diet. This agrees with t he
finding of Adesehinwa et.al. (2008) who reported
significant reduction in feed cost per kilogram live weight
gain as a result of replacing maize in control diet with
cassava peel supplemented with exogenous enzyme.
Table 3 presents the digestib ility coefficient of grower-
finisher pigs. Significant decrease (p<0.05) in nutrient
digestibility occurred as CPM replacement of maize
increased in diets of finisher pigs. However, digestibility of
all nutrients: CP, CF, EE, NFE and overall dry matter
T1
T 2
T3
T4
Levels of cassava peel meal replacement
Performance indices
50 %
75 %
100 %
SEM
LOS
Number of pigs
4
4
4
Average initial live weight (kg)
31.75
31.88
32.50
0.89
NS
Average final weight (kg)
60.50
61.25
60.75
0.94
NS
Average daily weight gain (kg)
0.62
0.52
0.45
0.06
NS
Average daily feed intake (kg)
1.77
1.53
1.35
0.16
NS
Feed conversion ratio
2.85
2.93
3.03
0.15
NS
Feed cost/ kg live weight gain( )
177.93b
162.73bc
147.41c
9.51
*
Average number of days fed
49.25
56.00
63.00
8.29
NS