How to Administer Research Chemicals

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How to Administer Research Chemicals

Since research chemicals are like drugs for all intensive purposes, they are also administered in many of
the same ways that other drugs are. The following is a list of the most common methods:



Enteral- through the intestines or gastrointestinal (GI) tract

Oral:
pills, powders, syrups, suspensions, capsules etc. are common types of medicinal forms. These can all be
taken orally for effective delivery of the chemical into the system. This is safest method because it takes
longer for the body to process and thus the onset of effects is delayed. It is easy to manage, non-
invasive, and the chemical travels through many other parts of the body before reaching the
bloodstream. However, this means that a higher dosage of the drug is required and depending upon
how abrasive the chemical is, there may be some damage to the inner lining tissues or side effects like
vomiting and nausea.

Sublingual:
This method means placing the chemical under the tongue. This method id preferred because of the
numerous blood vessels found under the tongue for quicker absorption of the drug. This also means a
lower dosage is required to achieve the same effects as oral ingestion.




Rectal:
Here, the chemical in inserted into the rectum, either in a gel form or liquid form. This method ensures
quick delivery because of the high number of blood vessels present. It also deletes the possibility of side
effects like vomiting and nausea because the chemical does not go through the stomach. The only
downside is it may get irritable but it is still preferred over invasive methods listed below.
Paraenteral- other than the GI tract
Intravenous (IV):
In this method, a needle is used to inject drugs into the veins directly. This is definitely the most potent
route of drug administration. Often used at medical facilities, this ensures that the exact and smallest
amount of chemical is delivered directly into the bloodstream for a speedy response. This is a good
method however should be left to medical professionals. Incorrect administration can lead to grave
dangers like overdosing, damage to veins, and infection under unhygienic conditions.


Intramuscular (IM):
Here the drug is delivered into the muscle tissue via injections. This is not much different from IV and
generally uses the upper arm or bicep region of delivery. Again, this should also be handled with sterile
tools and by a medical professional.
Subcutaneous:
This is the layer of fatty tissue under the skin and injections delivered here generally have a slow release
of the drug. Common sites are lower abdomen, thighs, and buttocks. This is quite a harmless method
and can be done by yourself; however, the onset of the effect is gradual because this tissue specializes
in storage.
Other


Insufflated:
Snuffed or snorted through the nose. This method ensures a quick delivery other than IV however can
lead to much damage to the nasal tissues and cavity. It can cause burning or nose bleeds and the quick
action can sometimes trigger vomiting.

Smoked:
This is quite safe and effective for drugs, and it means to burn the crude matter. In case the drug is a
pure compound, it should be vaporized and not burnt. This method can also lead to a quick delivery as
with oral ingestion.
Ocular:
Here the drug is inserted into the wall via a liquid form. This is one of the more dangerous routes
because the reactions and damage can be severe and can lead to blindness.
Topical:
This is when the drug is applied directly on the skin as an ointment or cream. This is generally for milder
drugs and is specific to drugs which are traditionally meant for topical conditions.
Transdermal:
This method is commonly seen in the patch form. A medicinal patch with the required dosage is adhered
to the skin and then the drug is slowly absorbed. Examples include nicotine patches and birth control
patches.


Chemical:

This method of delivery includes many, highly-technical methods using other molecules to deliver the
drug into the body. This is generally done with in-patient hospital procedures and examples include
chemotherapy etc.
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  • How to Administer Research Chemicals