ICT Integration in Education: Policies and practices in Southeast Asia

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Dr. Ivan Hanafi1
Department of Electrical Education, Universitas Negeri Jakarta

Dr. Soeharto2
Department of Electrical Education, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta


Currently, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is mainly needed
especially at technical and vocational education. This study was intended to find out
information on the integration of ICT at Secondary Technical and Vocational Schools
(SMK). This was a survey study and the data were col ected from three school elements,
namely, administrators, teachers, and students. The data was also col ected from
relevant literatures and by interviewing the students and the teachers at some schools in
Jakarta. The findings of the study indicate that integration of ICT in SMK conducted
based on the policy of government stated in Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 and
the Regulation of Ministry of National Education No. 23 of 2006. When this study was
conducted, there were 3538 SMKs in Indonesia and 392 of them were located in DKI
Jakarta. Most of SMKs in DKI Jakarta have conducted ICT based learning, consisting of
227 schools (57.9%) have conducted the ICT based learning total y, 159 schools (40.6%)
have conducted it by col aborating with other parties, and the rest 6 schools (1.5%) have
not yet conducted at all. The Average ratio of the number of computers in school for the
students to practice was 1:20. Implementations of ICT based learning were the use of
computer to deliver the materials in the classrooms by teachers, the teaching of
computer skil and data processing, the access of information from on-line internet, and
the evaluation of learning. Some constraints faced by some schools were the insufficient
financial support to develop ICT facilities and the extension of internet access, some
technology illiterate teachers, low incentives for teachers to take ICT training, low
frequency of regular turn off electricity, and unavailability of computers used by student
in learning.

Keywords: Integration, Information and Communication Technology, Technical and
Vocational Education


The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning is
inevitable in this era. ICT in this definition is not only related to computer and its
networking but also include other technological devices that can enhance the quality of

1 SEAVERN Coordinator, Universitas Negeri Jakarta
2 SEAVERN Coordinator, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

teaching and learning process such as mobile phones, Projectors, TVs, Radios,
CD/DVC/Cassette players, Camera, etc. Development of ICT have tendency to affects
various aspect of life, including education, especially vocational education which is very
close usage technology in the teaching and learning process. Various impacts to
vocational education can identify such as (1) shifting of education system orientation,
from teacher as a learning resource to student which is based on student centred
learning approach; (2) more choices of learning resource available and can be accessed
by student; (3) open of the distance learning by using e-learning approach; (4) needs the
standard quality of education in order to global competitiveness; (5) needs more
understanding and implementation of the long life education.

To optimize the use ICT in teaching learning, teachers should not only focus on the
devices but more importantly is the effort to enhance the right pedagogy in the
teaching-learning process as well. The survey will cover the SEAMEO member countries
and will examine the policy and practices of ICT Integration in Education especially at
vocational and technical schools. Specifical y, it attempts to identify the existing
condition at the school level in terms of ICT integration in the classroom and to generate
information on chal enges/constraints and strategies in solving problems during its
implementation stage.

Literature Review

UNESCO (2004) was studied on Integrating ICTs into education a collective case study of
6 Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand.
The summary of study is grouping countries based on ICT integration as follows:
1. High-level integration, countries such as South Korea and Singapore. Some typical
characteristics of these countries are that almost all classrooms are equipped with
computers and other ICT tools; the student/computer ratio is high; Internet access is
available in all schools; curriculum revision ensures nationwide ICT integration;
delivery of education is increasingly online.
2. Moderate-level integration, countries where national ICT policies and master plans
have been formulated and various ICT integration strategies are being applied and

tested (although ICT is not fully integrated in the education system). These include
China, Thailand, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines and India. Characteristics of this
group are national ICT policies in education have been developed, and the goals and
objectives for introducing ICT in various aspects of education have been established.
3. Low-level integration, the countries in this group efforts towards ICT integration
efforts and formulation of national policies have just begun. These include Myanmar,
Lao PDR, Viet Nam, Cambodia, and Bangladesh. The other characteristic are have no
relevant policies but are running pilot ICT projects and there is insufficient budget to
implement policies and work plans and ICT infrastructure and penetration are poor.

There are eight Components of ICT Integration in Education such as broader
environmental context, policy and regulatory environment, management and financing,
ICT in schools – policy, vision and strategy, technology infrastructure and connectivity,
curriculum, pedagogy and content development, professional development, and
monitoring and evaluation. For instance, as Lessons learned broader environmental
context, the country should have (1) A wel -planned and responsive education system
provides an appropriate enabling environment for the successful implementation of ICT
in education policy and programme, (2) To make ICT an integral part of the education
master plan and ensure programme support, the ICT in education policy should share
the same vision as other educational policies or initiatives, (3) An ICT in education policy
that is driven by a vision which can be translated into action targeted at realistic and
manageable goals contributes to successful programme implementation, (4) A holistic
approach to ICT in education policy goes beyond a technological dimension, (5)
Adequate physical and technological infrastructures are necessary conditions for
effective ICT integration, (6) A wel -developed ICT infrastructure in the economic sector
facilitates successful implementation of ICT in education policy, and (7) ICT in education
policy is one of several key economic strategies to ensure sustained economic
development of any country.

In Indonesia, the school policy related to the integration of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) at Vocational High School is conducted based on the
Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 on National Standard of Education. The basic

framework and the curriculum structure of article No. 7 of clause No. 6 states that the
science and technology subject group at vocational high school and Islamic vocational
high school, or other equal level of education is run through the subjects and/or
activities of Language, Mathematics, Natural Science, social science, life skill, vocational,
information and communication technology, and other relevant local content.

Furthermore, the realization of the regulation is written in the Regulation of Ministry of
National Education No. 23 of 2006 on Graduate Competency Standard for Basic and
Secondary School Units. Article 1 of clause 1 of the regulations states that the Graduates
Competency Standards for basic and secondary education units are used as the
assessment guidelines for determining the passing of the outcomes. The graduate
competency standard related to ICT at Vocational High School is the Computer Skill and
Information Management. The computer skill and information management required
based on the graduate competency standard at vocational high school level covers (1)
ability to work with the computer (Personal Computer); (b) ability to use the software
operation system; (c) ability to make use of computer technology to process the data,
daily needs, as well as the relevant need for job market; and (d) ability to use the PC for
internet and web-design.

Therefore, based on the regulation on the use of information and communication
technology, the vocational high school is obliged to conduct information and
communication technology (ICT) in education. The ICT based learning can consist of
computer knowledge and skil together with the software and hardware taught to the
students intended to develop their understanding, knowledge, and skil s they need in
their future life. Many studies have been conducted to gain information related to the
development of ICT at schools, including the vocational high school. The information
from the results of studies conducted at some vocational high schools in Jakarta through
field surveys contents the implementation of learning activities, especially in relation to
the integration of ICT in the learning process at vocational high schools.

According to Yuheti (2003), the ICT and their application becomes an important part of
the education system and the future the school and university curriculum wil gradual y

adjusted to this particular trend beginning from higher education and high school.
Moreover, Indonesia is one of the countries that have given a great concern with doing
serious efforts in reducing Digital Divide among its people through extensive use of ICT
in various sectors. In general the development of ICT in Indonesia is less extensive
compared with Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand.

In the application of ICT, Internet – a large collection of computers in networks
worldwide – plays an important role. Today internet has been utilized in almost every
aspect of human life including in education. There is no comprehensive data on the use
of internet in Indonesia education available. However, in the year of 2000, Ministry of
National Education through Directorate general of Primary and Secondary Education
collaborated with the Indonesian Internet Providers Association has launched a program
of SMU 2000. The program deals with providing the senior secondary school teachers
and students with the internet services through which they can access information
worldwide (Ali, 2004).


Research design
The design of this study is descriptive quantitative and qualitative using survey (primary
data collection) and document analysis (complementary). Interview is also used in
certain contexts and certain areas. A survey will be utilized to collect information from
respondents consist of school administrators, teachers and students to study practices,
constraints, and strategies on ICT integration into education at the school level.

Population and Sampling
This study wil be focused only VTET institutions that consist of secondary and post
secondary institutions. In Indonesia, due to broadness of the area of population, then
survey will be focused on secondary technical and vocational education at Jakarta and its
surroundings as well as in-depth study. The selection of the sample can be done by
considering the following stratification (1) Level of education: secondary technical and

vocational school (SMK), (2) Type of education: Public versus private schools, (3)
Economic condition: poor and rich, and (4) ICT Infrastructure: high, moderate, low.

Data Col ection Techniques
Survey Questionnaires is used to gather information from administrators, teachers and
students, and analysis also be used to examine relevant documents. Interview is used as
a tool for in-depth study and the result of an interview as a supplement of data col ected
by questionnaires.

Results and Discussions

Review of Technical and Vocational High Schools in Indonesia
Indonesia consists of 33 provinces and has different numbers of vocational schools in
different provinces. Some provinces are called the vocational cities because the
provinces have much more vocational school students compared to the general high
schools. However, nationally, not all vocational high schools have good conditions and
facilities. It is indicated by the category of school accreditation reflecting the whole
assessment on the school condition.

Based on the results of data processed from various sources, it is found that among
3,538 schools that proposed to be accredited in 2009, only 1,543 schools (43.6%) that
are eligible to cite as very good (A), 1,439 schools (40.7%) are cited as good (B), 410
schools (11.6%) are cited as poor (C), and 146 schools (4.1%) are not accredited (NA).
The vocational schools have 115 up to 128 specialty programs and each program has
different qualities. In relation to the quality of vocational schools, the data shows that
most of the schools that are cited as very good and good are located at cities in Java.
While the vocational schools outside Java are generally are generally located in the
capital cities of the provinces. The detailed description can be seen in the fol owing table.

Technical and Vocational High School in Jakarta
Like the condition of vocational high schools in Indonesia in the year of 2009, not all
vocational high schools in the Province of Jakarta are accredited good. Based on the data,

it is found that among 392 schools that proposed to be accredited in 2009, only 194
schools (49.5%) are cited as very good, 183 schools (46.7%) are cited good, and other 15
schools (3. 8%) are cited poor are cited as poor and very poor. Some of the schools that
cited as very good and good are located in West Jakarta and South Jakarta with the total
number of 105 schools, while the vocational schools that cited as the lowest are found in
Central Jakarta with 17 schools. None of the schools of Seribu Islands are cited as very
. The detailed description can be seen in the Table-1 as follows.

Table-1. The Condition of Technical and Vocational High School and
Their Accreditation Status

Central Jakarta
North Jakarta
West Jakarta
South Jakarta
East Jakarta
Seribu Islands

5 (1,3%)
*) processed from various tables from National Accreditation Body (2009)

Infrastructures and Facilities
In relation to the availability of General Learning Rooms, the schools were required to
have classrooms, Science Labs, Computer Labs, Language Labs, and Technical Drawing
Labs. The facts showed that there were only 164 schools (41.8%) out of 392 schools
which met the requirements for General Learning Rooms and 6 schools (1.5%) of them
did not have any General Learning Rooms. It is assumed that the learning processes
were conducted in the rooms belong to other schools. The availability of Specialty
Learning Rooms, namely, the laboratories and workshops, unexpectedly, there were
number of school that did not meet the requirements. Out of the 392 schools studied, it
was found that there were 130 schools (33.2%) which have met the minimum
requirements of educational standards. However, there were 7 schools (1.8%) which did
not have Specialty Learning Rooms at all, and there were 11 schools (12.8%) which had
very poor Specialty Learning Rooms.

ICT Integration at Technical and Vocational Schools
Solving the basic problem on ICT, whether the expertise program conducted using
information and communication technology based learning process with the human
resources whose relevant competency, resulted in the fol owing information. The data
from 392 schools studied in Jakarta shows that there were 227 schools (57.9%) of them
state that ICT based learning is implemented by themselves and the competency and the
certificates were matched. The data shows that 119 schools (30.4%) state that ICT based
learning is implemented by inviting the resource person from other schools. There were
33 schools (8.4%) state that ICT based learning is implemented by other party with some
of the resource persons were from the expertise program party. There were 7 schools
(1.8%) state that ICT based learning is implemented by other party (outsource) and 6
schools (1.5%) state that ICT based learning is not implemented at their schools at all.

Demographic Information and ICT Infrastructure in Schools Sample
The number of students of the target schools of this study is ranging from 155 to 2.134
students, with the total number of permanent teachers ranging from 7 to 76 teachers.
The number of administrative staffs as the respondents of this study ranging from 1 to
24 people and the number of the school staffs who were competent in ICT and became
the respondents of this study ranging from 1 to 8 people. One of the factors that
influences the effectiveness of the learning process in classroom is the number of
students. In this study, the average number of students in a classroom is 36 students
(39.1%). It means that the ratio of the students general y has met the ratio of student-
class standard, and it is in accordance with the ideal size of class for the learning process.

The number of computer possessed by the schools depends on the size of the school.
The big schools with more students will provide more computers compared to the small
schools in size with smal number of students. The administrative staffs, generally state
that they were sufficient and enough. There were most of the respondents state that
they were enough. In other words, the computer facilities for managing the
administrative works and schools have met the demands of the schools. On the other
hand, the number of computer provided for students to learn is ranging from 5 to 123

computers. It indicates that general y, the ratio between the number of computers and
the school is 20, meaning that every school has enough computers to implement ICT at

In Table-2 shown that some respondents state that the computers intended for the
students to use in the learning process is enough (52.2%) and a small number of
respondents state that they were more than enough (13.0%). While the other small
number state they not enough.

Tabel-2. Computer Facilities for Students


More than enough


Not enough

No responds

Similarly, in relation to the computers for connecting facilities of internet facilities, most
respondents state that they were enough and even some of them state that they were
more than enough. In other words, for internet network connection at the schools, most
of them state that they have met the needs or enough, as shown by the Table-3.
Tabel-3. Internet Connection Facilities


More than enough


Not enough

No respond

The school policy in improving the teachers’ competence in ICT has been conducted
through various ways and strategies, such as trainings and courses funded by the school,
by external donators, and by the teachers’ own expenses to improve themselves in ICT.
The strategy for improving the quality of human resources for ICT funded by the schools
is relatively small, while funded by external donators is high enough. Quite many

teachers learn ICT by themselves without financial support from schools or external

ICT Integration in Teaching and Learning Process
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is believed to have great influence on
the quality improvement of learning, especial y, the learning quality of students.
However, ICT also has negative impacts on the development of the students, especially,
if they are not monitored while they are using the internet. The result of a survey
indicates that there are some positive impacts or advantages of ICT on the improvement
of learning process at schools, especially for the students who have internet facilities.
Similar to that is the web browsing activities, many of them state that it is useful and
very useful. Currently, communication through email and SMS is said to be efficient and
effective because it can reach the communicators anytime and anywhere, relatively easy.
The result of the survey shows that email is communications is said to be useful (39.1%)
and very useful (52.2%). The learning process using audio and video has been trendy and
regarded as ICT facilities that is believed to be good for learning process. Most of the
respondents (92.3%) state that educational media recorded in CD-ROM is very useful for
improving the students’ learning outcomes.

Based on the survey, it can be described that the role of ICT facilities as schools is very
important intended for learning purposes. It was found out from the responds given on
the role of ICT facilities at schools intended for learning media (87.0%), school
administration management media (82.6%), communication and internet website
(60.9%), training media at lab (56.5%), and for searching information (43.5%). The
impact of ICT implementation in education indicates that it has very important impact,
especially, on learning practice (86.9%), on students’ understanding on every subject
(78.3%), and on alumni’s careers (69.5%). Therefore, almost al respondents
representing educational stakeholders at schools (administrators, teachers, students,
and students’ parents) state they agree very much when the ICT is integrated to
education, especially, in the learning process at school.