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Immunoglobulin, also known as antibody, which produced by plasma cells , is a
large Y-shape protein. There are five isotypes in placental mammals, which are
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. The immune system, which is highly complex and
exceedingly specific, uses these glycoprotein molecules to identify and
neutralize particular antigens, such as bacteria and viruses.
Immunoglobulin acts as a critical part of the immune response by specifically
recognizing and binding to foreign objects, such as bacteria or viruses and
aiding in their destruction. The various immunoglobulin isotypes differ in their
biological features, structures, target specificity and distribution. Hence the
assessment of the immunoglobulin isotype can provide useful insight into
complex humoral immune response