Kurt Lewin's Force Field Analysis:
Decision Making Made Easy
By Lyndsay Swinton
Kurt Lewin’s Force Field Analysis is a simple yet effective decision making model to
add to your management tool-kit. Here’s the low down on how to use force field
analysis to make better decisions, quickly, for yourself or with others.
Who’s Kurt Lewin anyway?
Kurt Lewin was a German social psychologist born in 1890, best known for “Force
Field Analysis” using force field diagrams, and for introducing scientific
experimentation to test hypotheses. Lewin worked mostly in the USA, and his
teachings shape our understanding today of group dynamics.
Force Field Analysis – the 35,000 foot view
There are always pros and cons to a decision – nothing is ever that simple! The
secret of good decision-making is figuring out whether the pros outweigh the cons
BEFORE you take action. With force field analysis, you list and score the factors for
and against a decision, total the scores and see which comes up best.
If it's a close call and the decision for or against is not clear, you can add an extra
step. Review the factors affecting the decision and create an action plan to increase
the “fors” and decrease the “againsts”. Simply repeat the force field analysis with the
new conditions and your decision will be clear.
Force Field Analysis – Step 1
On a sheet of paper or spreadsheet, list all the factors for(pros) and
factors against (cons) a decision. Include intangible or emotional factors as ignoring
these can undermine your decision.
Force Field Analysis -Step 2
Give each factor a score of between 1 and 5, where 1 is low or weak and 5 is high or
strong. Draw opposing arrows for each factor, where the size represents the score.
Force Field Analysis - Step 3
Total the For and Against scores. Is the result as expected? Do your heart and head
agree? If not, review briefly the factors you listed. Are there any missing? Are less
important factors overshadowing the more important factors? Are the scores
realistic, and spread across the full range? Resist the temptation to fabricate the
results, consider changing the factors and scores and see what happens.
Force Field Analysis - Step 4 (Additional)
It may be possible to increase the For score and decrease the Against score by
taking appropriate action. Could a communication plan address concerns about
resistance to change? Could additional training or additional resources increase the
likelihood of a successful change? Review the factors and decide what actions could
be taken to address or enhance any challenges.
Assuming these actions take place, what would the new scores be? Go through each
factor, assuming the action has been successful, and write down the new score (as
step 2). Total the new For and Against scores (as step 3). Again, is the result as
Crystal Clear Decisions
By now your decision is clear. Although you might not like the outcome, you can be
confident that your decision is sound, transparent and explainable.
Instead of using “gut feel” or other haphazard means, try a more scientific decision
making method. Kurt Lewin Force Field Analysis is simple yet effective method to
improve your decision making ability today
By Lyndsay Swinton
Owner, Management for the Rest of Us
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