Media Violence Does Not Cause Violent Behaviors

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  1. Media and Entertainments Influence on Societal Violence Rates Cons Elizabeth Hare Melissa Ingersoll Ashlee Hunt Amanda White
  2. Violence
    • Is violence getting worse?
    • Mock violence in media influencing behavior
    • Other forms of violence suburban kids see
    • Evidence
  3. What the Studies Show
    • Media Violence vs. Real Violence
    • Chicken-And-Egg Dilemma
      • Violent TV cause aggressive behavior
      • Do violent people prefer violent TV
    • International Examples
      • Japan
  4. Violent Entertainment Necessary
    • Fear, Greed, Power-Hunger, Rage: People try not to experience in real life
    • Melanie Moore, Ph.D. Psychologist
        • Children need violent entertainment to explore inescapeable feelings taught to deny
        • Effects selfhood
  5. The First Amendment
    • Individual adults must be free to decide for themselves what to read, write, paint, draw, see and hear
    • Personal choice and gives ownership of choice, making the person ultimately responsible
      • Change the channel
      • Turn off the TV
      • Decline going to that movie
      • Decline to go to that museum exhibit
    • Supreme Courts Interpretation of 1 st Amendments protection of artistic expression
  6. FCC Violence Report
    • 2004 Notice of inquiry
      • What are the effects of viewing violent programming on children and other segments of the population?
      • Cited the 2001 Surgeon General's Report on Youth Violence
        • Media has no effect on violence or criminal violence
        • Exposure to media violence not a risk factor for violence
  7. Increasing Amounts of Media Violence
    • Increased amount of realistic violence in movies
    • Violent lyrics in rap music
    • Increased violence in video games
    • Increased violence on TV
      • Increased violence in all media types
  8. US Crime Rates
    • 1992 US crime rates dropped dramatically
      • Continued to drop for the next 15 years
    • 2009 Rates the same as before TV was introduced in the US
    • AAP Policy statement on media violence
      • Claimed “proven” studies that link children's aggressive behavior and inclination for violent entertainment
      • Misinterpreted and many factual errors
    • Since 1994 FBI reported decreased youth crime
    • Popular most violent prime-time programs and effect on violence
      • Showed the more popular the program, lower crime rates
  9. Placing Blame
    • Media is the immediate answer for US violence
      • Lab experiments give answer to human behavior
        • Very few experiments (less than 1000)
        • Questionable measures of aggression
        • Data group participating
  10. Youth Violence
    • Early Childhood, social, emotional, and physical development
      • Young increased vulnerable to negative influences
      • Can’t always control environmental messages received
    • Ability to distinguish fantasy from reality, ability to comprehend nuances of behavior, motivation, or moral complexity
      • Very limited until about the age of 10
      • Parents job to protect those children from potentially negative influences
  11. Video Games
    • Does not cause violence
        • Average age is 35
          • understand the difference between reality and fantasy
        • No scientific studies have shown a link
        • Parents can easily monitor and control what child can play
    • Violence comes from first hand experiences
      • 12-18 victims or offenders violent crime
      • From uncertainty about when violence next occur
      • Major aspect of virtual reality, cannot be stimulated by video game and sets fantasy apart from reality
    • Manufactures not targeting youth
      • Parents job to monitor what have access to
  12. Causes of Violence
    • Innate motivational system
        • Predisposed to violence-prone model violence
        • Not predisposed to violence-seek out nonviolent models
    • Male gender, physical abuse, exposure to verbal abuse, are predictors of aggression and violence
        • Video games, or other forms of family violence (spanking) not predict aggression or violence
        • Male gender is the strongest predictor of aggression and violence
          • Physical and verbal abuse also increasing
  13. Influencing Violent Acts
    • Aggressive individuals influenced
      • Biological and family violence exposure
      • Choose to play violent game, use as a catalyst
  14. Violent Criminal Acts
    • Pathway
      • Combination of innate propensity
        • Genetics or brain injury
      • Exposure violence in the family
    • Media violence, including video games
      • No Role
    • Preventative efforts focus
      • Focus on the family
      • Reduce parental abuse of children
  15. Conclusion
    • Parents Responsible
      • Young children, fantasy vs. reality, and moral development
    • Violence is decreasing
      • Media violence is increasing
    • US Crime rates dropping
    • Research is limited, flawed, and giving false statistics
    • Gender, physical abuse, and exposure to verbal abuse strongest predictor of violence
  16. References
    • ESRB, (2008). Retrieved February 24, 2009, from Electronic Software Rating Board : (Level 7)
    • Bronk, R. C. (2007). The complexities of regulating TV violence. Progress on point: Periodic commentaries on the policy debate. 14.12 , pp. 1-33. The Progress & Freedom Foundation. (Level 5)
    • Children, National Association for the Education of Young. (2007). Media violence in children's lives: Position statement of the NAEYC . Retrieved February 24, 2009, from National association for the education of young children: (Level 7)
    • Committee on the Judiciary. (2006). Media violence leads to youth violence: A report for parents and policy makers . Retrieved February 24, 2009, from Opposig Viewpoints Resource Center: (Level 7)
  17. References Cont.
    • Entertainment Software Association. (2007). Essential facts about games and violence . Retrieved February 24, 2009, from ESA: (Level 7)
    • Ferguson, C. J. (2008). Violent video games and aggression: Casual relationship or byproduct of family violence and intrinsic violence motivation? Criminal Justice and Behavior , 35 (311), 311-332. (level 6)
    • Freedman, J. L. (2008, Aprin 25). Television violence and aggression: Setting the record straight . Retrieved February 23, 2009, from The Media Institue / Policy Views : (level 4)
    • Jones, G. (2004). Media violence promotes healthy behavior . Retrieved February 23, 2009, from Opposing viewpoints resource center: (Level 5)
    • Rhodes, R. (2006). Media violence does not cause youth violence: The media violence myth . Retrieved February 24, 2009, from Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center: (Level 5)
  18. References Cont.
    • Sternbeimer, K. (2008). It's not the media: The truth about pop culture's influence on children. USA: WestView Press. (Level 5)
    • US Department of Health and Human Services. (2004). Parents: Be role models for your children . Retrieved February 23, 2009, from SAMHSA'S national mental health information center: Center for mental health services: (Level 7)
  19. Levels of Evidence
    • Level 1 – evidence from a systematic review or meta-analysis of all relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs), or evidence-based clinical practice guidelines based on systematic reviews of RCTs
    • Level 2 – evidence obtained from at least one well-designed RCT
    • Level 3 – Evidence obtained from well-designed controlled trials without randomization
    • Level 4 – evidence from well-designed case-control and cohort studies
  20. Levels of Evidence Cont.
    • Level 5 – evidence from systematic reviews of descriptive and qualitative studies
    • Level 6 – evidence from a single descriptive or qualitative study
    • Level 7 – evidence from the opinion of authorities and/or reports of expert committees
  21. Evidence Presented
    • Evidence collected are levels 5, 6, & 7 and one level 4
    • No evidence presented as Levels 1, 2, & 3
      • Level 1-Studies show faulty data, unable to do RCTs
      • Level 2-Evidence has shown that the are not well designed, and not able to do a RCT
      • Level 3-Evidence has shown that the studies aren’t well designed and don’t use participants that are related to the hypothesis, along with inaccurate measurement of aggression.
      • Level 4-Evidence has shown that the studies aren’t well designed, and because can’t allow acts of violence on others or even to play freely the studies don’t accurately depict the target group
  22. Level 4
    • Only one study accurately did Level 4 evidence
      • Prime time media violence and effect on actual violence and crime
        • Analyzed popularity of violent media in 281 metropolitan areas
        • Looked at the crime rates of that area in relation to popularity
          • Showed that a decrease in crime where violent prime time programs are more popular