Network Component Guide

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The computer network is the group
of computer and other hardware
devices those are linked together by
communicating channel. These
computer resource are shared by
various users. The hardware
component interconnect between
various communicating channel.
One device able to send or receive
data. When more than one
computer interconnect through a
communication medium and
exchange information then we
called it computer network.

Besides physical medium all
networking operations are needed
devices those are designed to
handle certain specific function.
These are often called network
equipment or component.
Component's function are not
necessarily handle by specific
device. Network functions also
performed by software application.
For example windows XP has built-
in support for Network Bridging that
handle a bridge's functions in a
home network with mixed media.

Network Adapter
Repeater and Bridge
Hub and Switch
Wireless Access Point
Residential Gateway

Network adapter works as an
interface between different
computers, devices or networks. We
may need different types of adapter
according to the type of network. It
translate a computer binary signal
or message into the electrical or
optical signal across the
transmission channel. Each adapter
is identified through MAC address.
Different adapter are Wi-Fi,
Ethernet, IBM HBA's etc.

Modem means modulator and
demodulators. In the sending area
modem modulates the signal into
the high frequency carrier wave.
Make it prepare for transmission. In
the receiving end it demodulates
the signal. That means extract the
data from encrypted signal. It also
translate digital signal into analog
and vice versa,
encryption/decryption etc. We
always need modem when we
connect to internet. There are lot's
of modem cable modem, ADSL and
GPRS modem.

Repeater := It receives signal from
transmitter and amplifies it and
retransmit it. When we transmit a
signal for the long distance then we
need more energy. Amount of
energy is directly proportional to
the distance. So we need repeater
to decrease the energy load of
signal production.

Bridge := The Bridge connect to
different layer 2 protocol, like
Ethernet, HomePNA, Wi-Fi etc. It
also used as split the network into
different segments.

Hub := It is a central connecting
point in the network. Those
network use star topology Hub uses
there. A computer sends a signal to
the Hub then Hub translate it and
retransmit it to other computer in
the network. It act's as a relay
station. Using Hub bandwidth
capacity is shared by all computers.
Each computer use the portion of
bandwidth. It is used in the small
network. In the two computer
network Hub is not required.

As like Hub switch connect to the
central point to the network. When
it receives a IP packet from
computer than it examines the
destination address from it's header
and transmit the packet to the
destination computer. Switch
maintains a table map of all ports of
the computer into the network. All
switches has MAC address. Using
the switch the whole bandwidth are
used, that's why the large network
use the switch instead of Hub. In
many time it is integrated with

Access point of wireless LAN (Wi-Fi)
acts as a hub or switch of the wired
network. It connect different device
together and create a wireless
computer environment. It acts as a
access point of wireless to the wired
network like Ethernet. It has an
interface to a broadband modem.
Some access point has multi
function device that incorporate
functions like bridge, router and
modem. It is also known as base