Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical studies and Antibacterial activity of Wood from Talipariti elatum Sw. (Fryxell) in Cuba

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International Journal of Engineering Research & Science (IJOER) ISSN: [2395-6992] [Vol-3, Issue-11, November- 2017]
Page | 51
Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical studies and Antibacterial
activity of Wood from Talipariti elatum Sw. (Fryxell) in Cuba
José González1*, Armando Cuéllar2, Silvia C. Morales3, Max Monan4
1,2Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Foods, Havana University, Cuba
3Department of Foods, Faculty of Pharmacy and Foods, Havana University, Cuba
4ARVARNAM, Martinica, France
Abstract A p reliminary pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of Talipariti elatum (Sw.) that grows in
Cubawas realized to determine the macromorphology and micromorphology characteristics, the physicochemical and
phytochemical parameters from the wood of this spice that grows in Cuba. This crude drug showed the characteristic
physicochemical values such as moisture content (7.6 %), total ashes (1.14%), water soluble ashes (0.19 %), acid insoluble
ashes (0.33 %) and extractable matter in ethanol at 70 % (10.87 %). Phytochemical screening revealed the possible presence
of triterpenes and/or steroids, reductants sugars, tannins and/or phenolic compounds, flavono ids and bitter and astringent
principles, realized under WHO parameters. The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts at 30, 50 and 70 % of the wood
against Salmonella tiphymurium 14028, Bacillus cereus 11778, Escherichia coli 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus
25923showed varying degrees of inhibition on the tested organisms.
Keywords Talipariti elatum, wood, pharmacognostical, phytochemical, antibacterial.
The Talipariti elatum tree is quite attractive with its straight trunk, broad green leaves and hibiscus-like flowers (Fig.1). It
grows quite rapidly, often attaining 20 meters (66 ft.) or more in height. The attractive flower changes color as it matures,
going from bright yellow to orange red and finally to crimson. Endemic to West Indies; native to Cuba and Jamaica;
cultivated in Hispaniola, Puerto Rico , Virgin Islands (Virgin Gorda), and Lesser Antilles (Dominica, Guadeloupe,
Martinique, St. Lucia).The name mahoe is derived f rom a Carib word. The ‘blue’ refers to blue-green streaks in the polished
wood, giving it a distinctive appea rance (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2013;
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013). In wetter areas i t will grow in a wide range of elevations, up to 1,200 meters (3,900 ft.)
and is often used in reforestation. It is the national tree of Jamaica (U.S Department of Agriculture, 2009).
It is an excellent wood with a rich variety of colors and attractive grain, but surprisingly, very little mahoe is currently being
produced anywhere else. Mahoe can vary greatly in color from tree to tree; the b lue tone does not tend to endure for many
years. The wood transforms over time to shades of browns, purples, greys, and bluesy-greens (Tropic Ventures Rainforest
Enrichment and Sustainable Forestry Project, 2009).
Since 2007, Areces and Fryxell renamed the Blue Mahoe (from Hibiscus elatus Sw. to Talipariti elatum Sw.) due to their
arborescent behavior, prominent stipules that close the terminal yams, foliar lameness co riaceous, entire margin and a
relative higher chromosomal number (2n = ca. 80, 90, ca. 92, ca. 96 and 120) (Fryxell, 2001 ). The same procedure was done
with Hibiscus tiliaceus L (now Talipariti tiliaceum L.). Both species belongs to Malvaceae family.
The present study aimed at investigating the macromorphology, pharmacognostic evaluation and phytochemical screening of
the wood of T. elatum S w. towards standardization and monograph development and to evaluate the antibacterial activity of
an ethanolic extract of this part of the tree.
International Journal of Engineering Research & Science (IJOER) ISSN: [2395-6992] [Vol-3, Issue-11, November- 2017]
Page | 52
2.1 Plant Material
The wood was collected in J anuary 2016 in the gardens of the Faculty of Pharmacy and Foods at Havana University, and
identified at the herbarium of National Botany Garden of Hava na, where the voucher specimen no. HAJB 82587 has been
deposited. Specimen is registered as Talipariti elatum Sw. (Fryxell) Malvaceae (Sin. Hibiscus elatus Sw).
2.2 Chemicals
Analytical grade ethanol (Merck), analytical grade acetic acid (Merck), analytical grade n -butanol (Merck) and
analytical grade methanol (Merck) were used in the analysis work. HPLC MeOH, Ultrapure MilliQ water and HPLC EtOH
were purchase from B DH (Darmstadt, Germany). All solvents were degassing previously before used in an ultrasonic bath
without filtration.
2.3 Extract and Samples Preparation
The wood was dried in an oven with contro lled temperature, at 40˚C, during 5 days. The extracts were prepared with the
ground material (60 g) without screen extracted in a Soxhlet app aratus with 675 mL of ethanol at 95% during 20
hours. The ethanolic extracts were concentrated and evaporated u nder vacuum to 200 mL at 120 rpm, a temperature of 70˚C
and 500 mbar.
2.4 Phytochemical Studies
Dried wood was ground to a coarse powder (grain size: 850 ± 29 µm) and packed in a suitable container for phytoc hemical
identification. The powder was extracted with 70% ethanol, filtered and concentrated using vacuum distillation.
The chemical constituents were screened according to Chhabra et al., 1989 to ascertain the presence of chemical components
in diethyl ether, etanol and water. The UV spectrometric experiments were carried out on a UV-VIS JASCO V-530 (Japan).
The scan range was 200 to 400 nm; absorbance 0.000-3.0000, band width 2.0 n m,spectral resolution 0.1 nm and the analyzed
samples were diluted in methanol, into quartz cuvettes (d = 1 cm).
TLC conditions: TLCP (thin-layer chromatography plate) on silica gel with fluorescent indicator 254 nm o n aluminum cards
(layer thickness 0.2 mm) (10 × 20 cm) using n-butanol: acetic acid: water (BAW 65:25:10) as developing agent (v/v/v),
concentrated sulfuric acid plus heat, FeCl3and AlCl3 were the chromogenic agents. Rutin (R), quercetin (Q) and gossypitrin
(G) were used as standard. The TLCP were examined under ultraviolet (254 nm and 365 nm) and ordinary light.
The total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, extractable matter and moisture content were determined according to the
standard procedures mentioned in the general rule of WHO, 1998.
2.5 Procedures, Instrumentation and Parameters
Chromatographic profile of ethanolic extract at 70 % was carried out in an HPLC equipment Knauer-Azura (Germany) with
UV detector at 280 nm, flow 1mL/min, with chromatographic column RP-18e (Knauer 250 x 4,6 mm Lichrospher 100-5),
injecting 50,00 μL of the sample twice, during 60 min, pump pressure at 11,7 MPa, using as eluent (A) H2O and eluent (B)
International Journal of Engineering Research & Science (IJOER) ISSN: [2395-6992] [Vol-3, Issue-11, November- 2017]
Page | 53
MeOH. A gradient of 15-85% B during 30 min at 1mL/min followed by holding the gradient, increasing up to 50 % A during
10 min and reversing to 0 % B during 5 min and equilibrating during 5 min.
2.6 Antibacterial Activity
2.6.1 Bacteria strains and procedures
For antimicrobial evaluation 4 strains of ATCC bacter ia were used (Bacillus cereus 11778, Staphylococcus aureus
25923, Salmonella tiphymurium14028, Escherichia coli 25922), and were elabo rated ethanolic extracts from the drug at 30,
50 and 70 % according of methodology propose by Rogger et al., 1990, and Biavati et al., 2008 with so me modifications.
The microorganisms were obtained from the Mycological Laboratory, Bi oCen, Bejucal, Mayabeque province, Cuba. The
maximum concentration of the extracts employed to determi ne the MICs and MBCs was 250 mg/mL in base of extracts
solubility. None antibiotic were used as inhibition positive control for the realized microbiological studies.
The microorganisms were replanted into Brain-heart i nfusion, incubated at 35 ± 2 0C during 18-24 hours. The antibacterial
activity was also evaluated by the microdilution method (Hanel and Raether, 1988; Espinel-Ingroff, 20 01). The bacterial
suspensions were adjusted visually to a turbid standard 0.5 McFarland scale with sterile saline to a concentration of 2
x 106CFU/mL. The inoculate were prepared daily and stored at +4 °C until use. Dilutions of the inoculate were cultured
on solid medium to verify the absence of contamination and to check the validity of the inoculum.
The sensibility test was realized from isolated strains adjusted with PBS up to reach a standar d turbidity of 0.5 in McFarland
scale, after that were inoculated by diffusion method in Muller-Hinton Agar.To evaluate extracts antibacterial activity, disc
diffusion method was car ried out using 6 mm filter discs ( Verpoorte, Beek, Thomassen, Aandewiel, & Svendsen, 1983).
Bacteria were cultured overnight at 37°C in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) medium and then adjusted with sterile saline to a
concentration of 1.0 ×105CFU/mL. The suspension was added to the top of the agar plates in Petri dishes (300 µL/agar plate)
with Mueller-Hinton agar and suspended. Filter discs with extracts (10 µL/disc) were placed on agar plates. After 24
h of incubation at 37°C the diameter of the growth inhibition zones was measured (Sokovic, Glamoclija, Marin,
Brkic, & Griensven, 2010).
2.6.2 Statistical analysis
Three specimens were used and all the assays were carried out in triplicate. The results are expressed as mean values and
standard deviation (SD). The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s HSD
Test with α= 0.05. This treatment was carried out using SPSS v. 18.0 program.
3.1 Macroscopical and Microscopical Identification
The macroscopical morphology evaluation let define that wood is irregular, green -yellowish in color, 60 cm long and
between 8-10 cm wide, characteristic odor and taste lightly astringent (Fig. 2)
The powdered drug show green color with blue-greenish zones and kept its characteristics odor and taste (Fig. 3).