Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Methyl-2-Naphthyl Ether

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Environmental Analytical Chemistry
Trivedi et al., J Environ Anal Chem 2015, 2:5
http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2380-2391.1000162
Research Article Open Access
Volume 2 • Issue 5 • 1000162
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: 2380-2391 JREAC, an open access journal
Keywords: Methyl-2-naphthyl ether; Bioeld energy; X-ray
diraction; Surface area analysis; Dierential scanning calorimetry;
ermogravimetric analysis
Abbreviations
MNE: Methyl-2-Naphthyl Ether; NCCAM: National Center For
Complementary And Alternative Medicine; XRD: X-Ray Diraction;
DSC: Dierential Scanning Calorimetry; TGA: ermogravimetric
Analysis; DTA: Dierential ermal Analysis; DTG: Derivative
ermogravimetry; FT-IR: Fourier Transforms Infrared
Introduction
Naphthalene has been described as new class of potent
antimicrobials against wide range of human pathogens. It occupies a
central place among biologically active compounds owing to its varied
and exciting antibiotic properties with less toxicity [1]. Numerous
naphthalene containing antimicrobial drugs are existing like naine,
nafacillin, terbinane, tolnaate, etc. that plays vital role against
microbial infections [2,3]. Further, the naphthalene derivatives like
naproxen, nabumetone were also studied in depth as the nonsteroidal
anti-inammatory drugs (NSAIDs). ey are mainly nonselective
inhibitor of two cyclooxygenase (COX) isoform i.e., COX-1 and COX-2
[4,5]. Moreover, the structurally relative naphthalene derivatives lower
the parathyroid level by binding to calcium receptor on the parathyroid
gland. us, it helps to regulate hyperparathyroidism especially in
kidney disease or parathyroid gland neoplasm [6]. Based on the
importance of naphthalene derivative as a main moiety for organic
synthesis of several pharmaceutical drugs, it is advantageous to nd
out the alternate approach that can enhance the physicochemical and
thermal properties of naphthalene derivative i.e., methyl-2-naphthyl
ether (MNE). Recently, an alternate treatment approach i.e., healing
therapy or therapeutic touch, known as the bioeld energy treatment,
which was reported in several elds. e National Institute of Health/
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NIH/
NCCAM) conceived the bioeld energy treatment in subcategory of
energy therapies (putative energy elds) [7,8]. e bioeld treatment is
Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy
Treated Methyl-2-Naphthyl Ether
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi1, Alice Branton1, Dahryn Trivedi1, Gopal Nayak1, Khemraj Bairwa2 and Snehasis Jana2*
1Trivedi Global Inc., 10624 S Eastern Avenue Suite A-969, Henderson, NV 89052, USA
2Trivedi Science Research Laboratory Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad Rd., Bhopal- 462026, Madhya Pradesh, India
being used in healing process to reduce pain, anxiety and to promote
the overall health of human being [9,10]. Bioeld is an electromagnetic
eld that permeates and surrounds living organisms. is biologically
produced electromagnetic and subtle energy eld regulates the various
physiological and communications functions within the human
organism [11]. Researchers have attempted dierent biological studies
and eects of bioeld on various biomolecules such as proteins,
antibiotics [12], bacterial cultures [13], and conformational change in
DNA [14]. Prakash et al. reported that various scientic instruments
such as Kirlian photography, resonance eld imaging (RFI) and
polycontrast interference photography (PIP) could be extensively used
to measure the bioeld of human body [15]. us, the human has the
ability to harness the energy from the environment or Universe and
transmit it to any living or nonliving object on the Globe. e object(s)
receive the energy and respond into the useful way; this process is termed
as bioeld treatment. Mr. Trivedi’s unique bioeld energy treatment is
known as e Trivedi Eect®. Recently, bioeld energy treatment has
been described as an alternative method to alter the physicochemical
and thermal properties of several metals and ceramics [16-18]. It
has also reported to alter the spectroscopic properties of various
pharmaceutical drugs like paracetamol, piroxicam, metronidazole, and
tinidazole [19,20]. Moreover, the bioeld treatment has been studied in
Abstract
Methyl-2-naphthyl ether (MNE) is an organic compound and used as the primary moiety for the synthesis of
several antimicrobial and anti-inammatory agents. This study was attempted to evaluate the impact of bioeld energy
treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of MNE. The study was carried out in two groups i.e.,
control and treated. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld treatment. Afterward, the control and treated
samples of MNE were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-
IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD study exhibited the decrease in average crystallite size by
30.70%. The surface area analysis showed 5.32% decrease in surface area of the treated sample with respect to the
control. The DSC thermogram of treated MNE exhibited no signicant change in the melting temperature; however,
the latent heat of fusion was slightly increased (0.83%) after bioeld treatment as compared to the control sample.
The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 158 in the control sample that was
reduced to 124 after bioeld treatment. The result showed about 21.52% decrease in onset temperature of thermal
degradation of treated MNE as compared to the control. Similarly, the end-set temperature of thermal degradation was
also reduced by 13.51% after bioeld treatment with respect to the control. The FT-IR and UV spectroscopic studies
did not show any changes in the wavenumber and wavelength, respectively in treated MNE with respect to the control.
Overall, the XRD, surface area and thermal analysis suggest that bioeld treatment has the impact on physical and
thermal properties of the treated MNE as compared to the control.
*Corresponding author: Snehasis Jana, Trivedi Science Research Laboratory
Pvt. Ltd., Hall-A, Chinar Mega Mall, Chinar Fortune City, Hoshangabad
Rd., Bhopal-462026 Madhya Pradesh, India, Tel: 91-755-6660006; E-mail:
Received September 07, 2015; Accepted September 14, 2015; Published
September 20, 2015
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, et al. (2015)
Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Bioeld Energy
Treated Methyl-2-Naphthyl Ether. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 162. doi:10.4172/2380-
2391.1000162
Copyright: © 2015 Trivedi MK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original author and source are credited.
Volume 2 • Issue 5 • 1000162
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: 2380-2391 JREAC, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, et al. (2015) Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Bioeld Energy
Treated Methyl-2-Naphthyl Ether. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 162. doi:10.4172/2380-2391.1000162
Page 2 of 8
a heating rate of 5ºC/min under air atmosphere. e onset temperature
of thermal degradation and percent change in temperature at which
maximum weight loss occur in samples were obtained from DTG
thermogram.
Spectroscopic studies
For the purpose of FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic
characterization, the treated sample was divided into two groups i.e., T1
and T2. Both the treated groups were then analyzed for spectroscopic
characteristics employing FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and data
were compared with the respective spectrum of control sample.
FT-IR spectroscopic characterization
e samples for FT-IR spectroscopy were prepared by crushing
into ne powder and then mixing in spectroscopic grade KBr. Finally,
the mixture was pressed into pellets with a hydraulic press and then
used for analysis. e spectra were recorded from Shimadzu’s Fourier
transform infrared spectrometer (Japan) with the frequency range of
4000-500 cm-1. e analysis was done to evaluate the impact of bioeld
energy treatment at the atomic levels like force constant, dipole
moment, and bond strength in chemical structure [27].
Uv-Vis spectroscopic analysis
e samples solutions for UV spectroscopy were prepared in
methanol. UV spectra of the control and treated samples of MNE were
acquired from Shimadzu UV-2400 PC series spectrophotometer with
quartz cuvette having slit widths of 2.0 nm. e wavelength was set
between 200-400 nm for analysis. e study was carried out to evaluate
the impact of bioeld energy treatment on the energy gap of highest
occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital
(HOMO–LUMO gap) [27].
Results and Discussion
XRD analysis
XRD diractograms of both control and treated MNE are shown
in Figure 1. e control sample exhibited the XRD peaks at 2θ equal
to 10.27º, 15.44º, 19.07º, 20.57º, 21.21º, 24.76º, 25.33º, and 28.77º.
Likewise, the XRD diractogram of treated MNE showed the XRD
peaks at 2θ equal to 10.25º, 15.30º, 19.01º, 20.55º, 21.17º, 24.67º, 25.25º,
and 28.84º. e intensity of peak was also altered aer bioeld energy
treatment as compared to the control. XRD diractograms of both the
control and treated MNE showed the intense peaks, which suggest the
crystalline nature of MNE. e decrease of XRD peaks intensity in
treated sample might be attributed to the reduction in crystallinity and
decrease in long-range order of the molecules. e crystallite size was
calculated using Scherrer formula and the results are shown in Figure
2. e average crystallite size of the control MNE was observed as 84.55
nm that was decreased up to 58.59 nm in the treated sample. e result
indicated about 30.70% decrease in average crystallite size of treated
sample with respect to the control.
e increase in internal micro strain leads to decrease the
corresponding crystallite size of the material [28]. Moreover, Zhang et al.
reported that presence of strain and increased atomic displacement from
their ideal lattice positions lead to reduction in crystallite size [29]. Hence,
it is assumed that bioeld energy treatment probably induce the internal
strain in treated MNE sample. is might be responsible for the decrease
in crystallite size of the treated MNE as compared to the control.
Surface area analysis
e surface area of control and treated samples of MNE were
several elds like agriculture research [21,22], biotechnology research
[23], and microbiology research [24,25].
Based on the published literature and outstanding impact of
bioeld energy treatment on various living and nonliving things, the
present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s bioeld
energy treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of
MNE using several analytical techniques.
Materials and Methods
Study design
e Methyl-2-Naphthyl Ether was procured from Sisco Research
Laboratories, India. e study was performed in two groups i.e.,
control and treated. e control sample was remained as untreated,
and the treated group in sealed pack was handed over to Mr. Trivedi
for bioeld energy treatment under laboratory conditions. Mr.
Trivedi provided the bioeld energy treatment to the treated group
through his unique energy transmission process without touching the
sample. Subsequently, the control and treated samples of MNE were
analyzed using several analytical techniques like X-ray diraction
(XRD), surface area analysis, dierential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-
IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy.
XRD study
e XRD analysis of the control and treated MNE was carried out
on Phillips, Holland PW 1710 X-ray diractometer with nickel lter
and copper anode. e wavelength used in XRD system was 1.54056 Å.
e XRD diractograms were obtained in the form of a chart of 2θ vs.
intensity. e crystallite size (G) and percent change in crystallite size
of MNE were calculated using the following equations [26].
Crystallite size (G) = kλ/(bCosθ)
Percent change in crystallite size (G) = [(Gt-Gc)/Gc] ×100
Where, Gc and Gt are average crystallite size of control and treated
powder samples respectively.
Surface area analysis
e surface area of the control and treated MNE was measured
using the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Smart
SORB 90. Percent change in surface area was calculated using following
equation:
[ ]
Treated Control
Control
S -S
%change in surface area = ×100
S
Where, S Control and S Treated are the surface area of the control and
treated samples, respectively.
DSC study
e control and treated samples of MNE were studied using a
Pyris-6 Perkin Elmer dierential scanning calorimeter on a heating
rate of 10ºC/min under air atmosphere with air ow rate of 5 mL/
min. An empty pan sealed with cover was used as a reference pan. e
melting temperature (Tm) and latent heat of fusion (ΔH) were obtained
from the DSC curve.
TGA-DTG analysis
TGA-DTG analysis was conducted to investigate the thermal
stability of the control and treated MNE. e studies were carried out
on Mettler Toledo simultaneous TGA-DTG system. Both the control
and treated samples were heated from room temperature to 400ºC with
Volume 2 • Issue 5 • 1000162
J Environ Anal Chem
ISSN: 2380-2391 JREAC, an open access journal
Citation: Trivedi MK, Branton A, Trivedi D, Nayak G, Bairwa K, et al. (2015) Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Bioeld Energy
Treated Methyl-2-Naphthyl Ether. J Environ Anal Chem 2: 162. doi:10.4172/2380-2391.1000162
Page 3 of 8
determined using BET surface area analyzer and data are presented
in Figure 3. e surface area of the control and treated sample was
observed as 0.4904 m2/g and 0.4643 m2/g, respectively. e result
showed a considerable decrease in surface area i.e., 5.32% in the treated
MNE as compared to the control sample. It is assumed that bioeld
energy treatment possibly induced the disappearance of inter-particle
boundaries that may lead to the aggregation of particles and thus
increase in particle size [30]. Presumably, this increase in particle size
might lead to decrease in surface area of the treated sample.
DSC analysis
DSC analysis was performed to determine the melting temperature
and latent heat of fusion (ΔH) of the control and treated MNE. DSC
thermograms (Figure 4) of MNE showed the melting temperature at
73.72ºC in the control and 73.66ºC in the treated sample (Table 1). e
result depicted no signicant change in melting temperature of treated
sample as compared to the control. e melting temperature of control
MNE was well supported by literature data [31]. DSC thermogram
exhibited the ΔH of 147.49 J/g in control sample and 148.72 J/g in
treated sample of MNE. e result showed about 0.83% increase in
latent heat of fusion of treated sample as compared to the control. It
is hypothesized that bioeld energy treatment may cause absorption
of energy during the phase transition from solid to liquid that might
lead to increase the latent heat of fusion of treated sample with respect
to the control. Previously, our group has reported that bioeld energy
treatment altered the value of latent heat of fusion in lead and tin
powders [7].
TGA-DTG analysis
e TGA and DTG thermograms of control and treated samples of
MNE are shown in Figure 5 and data are reported in Table 1. e onset
temperature of thermal degradation was observed at 158°C and 124°C
for the control and treated samples, respectively. Whereas, the end-set
temperature of thermal degradation was found at 201°C and 178°C in
the control and treated sample, respectively. e result showed about
21.52% decrease in the onset temperature and 11.44% decrease in the
end-set temperature in treated sample with respect to the control. e
percent weight loss during thermal decomposition was 63.41% in the
control and 59.18% in the treated sample. It showed the decrease in
% weight loss during thermal decomposition aer bioeld treatment.
Based on this, it is presumed that bioeld treated MNE may be more
stable as compared to the control. e DTG thermogram exhibited the
Tmax (the temperature at which the sample lost its maximum weight) at
177.81°C in the control sample and at 153.78°C in the treated sample
of MNE. e result revealed about 13.51% decrease in Tmax of treated
sample with respect to the control. is decrease in Tmax in treated
sample might be due to increase in vaporization or volatilization [32]
of treated MNE molecules aer bioeld energy treatment. It might
be correlated with the alteration in internal energy through bioeld
energy treatment that results into earlier vaporization in treated sample
as compared to the control.
FT-IR spectroscopic analysis
FT-IR spectra of the control and treated samples of MNE (Figure
6) were inferred using the theoretically predicted wavenumber. e
aromatic =C-H stretching peak was assigned at 3007-3057 cm-1 in all
three samples i.e., the control and treated (T1 and T2). Likewise, the
-C-H (methyl) stretching was attributed to peak at 2962 cm-1 in all
three samples i.e., the control and treated (T1 and T2). e aromatic
C=C stretching of naphthyl moiety was appeared in the region of 1508-
Figure 1: XRD diffractograms of methyl-2-naphthyl ether.
Figure 2: Crystallite size of control and treated methyl-2-naphthyl ether.
Figure 3: Surface area analysis of control and treated methyl-2-naphthyl ether.