Relationship between Media Counselling, Farmer's Attitudes and Adoption of Integrated Crop Management Technology of Chili

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International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-2, Issue-6, Nov-Dec- 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/2.6.8 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 2825
Relationship between Media Counselling,
Farmer's Attitudes and Adoption of Integrated
Crop Management Technology of Chili
Eka Triana Yuniarsih, Nixia Tenriawaru, Siti Khaerani
Department of Agribusiness, Post Graduated School of Hasanuddin University, Perintis Kemerdekaan Street KM.10,
Makassar 90245, South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Abstract Counseling of integrated crop management
technology is done to reduce the negative impact on the
environment through various ways either throug h formal
or informal media, but in fact the utilization of
technological innovation tends to decrease because of
difficult farmer attitude accept technological innovation
offered. The purpose of this research is to see the
relationship of agricultural extension media, consumer
behavior a nd a doption of integrated crop management
technology of chili. The study was first conducted in
Maros regency, conducted in April-August 2017. Data
were collected randomly (simple random sampling) and
interviews were conducted to 85 respondents in a
structured ma nner using a pre -prepared questionnaire.
Data analysis was done using two methods: (1)
descriptive statistical analysis, and (2) quantitative
analysis. Descriptive analysis to explain extension media,
farmer attitude and farmer adoption, measured using
index aid. Quantitative analysis uses Chie Square
analysis. The results showed that there was no significant
correlation between media of counseling with farmer
attitude and there was significant correlation between
media of counseling with application of integrated crop
management technology of chili by farmer. Extension
activities through extension media nee d to be improved
and the choice of extension media should be in
accordance with the needs and conditions of local
farmers, so that counseling can be achieved. Farmers'
attitude toward technology should be directed to arrive at
a process of action to adopt technology.
Keywords Adoption, attitude, counseling, media,
relationship.
I. INTRODUCTION
One type of vegetable that has a broad development
prospect is chili pepper, this is because the chili pepper
has a wide market, both as a commodity consumed in t he
country and for export to overseas markets. In addition,
chili pepper has a fairly high economic value, and at
certain times the price of chili pepper will soar high
enough. Chili pepper also has a high adaptability to be
cultivated in various conditions (Kusmana et al., 2009).
In 2014, the area of chili pepper land in Indonesia reaches
128,734 ha, with p roduction of 1,074,602 tons and
productivity of 8.35 tons / ha. Nationally, chili pepper
production in 2014 has increased 6.09 percent or about
61,723 tons while the contribution of chili pepper
production to national vegetable production is 9.02
percent (Ministry of Agriculture, 2015 ). In 2014, the area
of chili harvest in the So uth Sulawesi region reaches
3,920 ha, with production of 20,516 tons and p roductivity
of 5.23 tons / ha. T here was an increase in production
from the previous year at 4,540 tons o r 20.13% (South
Sulawesi Statistics Agency, 2014). In addition, the area of
harvest of chili pepper in Maros Regency reaches 583 ha
with a production of 2.79 tons / ha (Statistic Center of
Maros Regency, 2015). Although statistically the
production of chili pepper increased, but nationally the
production has not been able to meet national needs.
In an effort to solve the problem, the government has
designed a technology assembly of chili pepper that can
increase production, reduce the use of chemical pesticides
and increase the use of organic fertilizer, called Integrated
Crop Management Technology abbreviated PTT. But the
perpetrator of chili pepper farming has not fully apply the
recommended technology, so the quality and production
level of chil i pepper produced is still low. This is based
on the results of research by Awaluddin et al (2014) that
the level of utilization of technological innovations by
farmers tend to slow down, the level of knowledge of
farmers are still lacking, access to information so urces far
enough and the availability of information that is not in
accordance with the needs of farmers.
According to Indraningsih (2011) research, the results of
external and internal evaluation indicate that the speed
and utilization rate of technological innovation produced
by the Ministry of Agriculture through research
institutions tends to decrease due to the attitude of farmers
who still reject the technological innovation. In addition,
agricultural counseling is currently only a program or it
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-2, Issue-6, Nov-Dec- 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/2.6.8 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 2826
can be said that farmers only accept if there is an activity
using the media counsel ing and has bee n determined
without being able to choose what the preferred way
farmers.
Problems of utilizing information media that have not
touched stakeholders and the use of information tha t has
not been widespread makes the position of farmers,
fishermen, and breeders become increasingly weak
(Andriaty & Endang, 2012). In addition, accordin g to
research by Sasongko et al (2014), the factors that
significantly affect the behavior of communication is the
credibility of the media where the higher the media
credibility by farmers, the higher the communication
behavior of farmers. Factors that significantly affect
attitude of farmers are communication, motivation, and
education behavior. Media consumption correlates
significantly with the effectiveness o f communication
between counseling workers and farmers. The most
dominant characteristic of farmers related to
communication effectiveness is farmer ed ucation level
and frequency of following counseling.
Research by Harmoko and Erik (2016) said that the
factors that affect farmers in accessing agricultural
information is the cosmopolitan level. The higher the
farmers look for agricultural information then access to
information will be higher. The information most needed
by farmers is related to production technolog y, followed
by marketing and post-harvest information. The need for
such information remains unfulfilled. Farmers use
meetings, print media, and electronic media to access
information (Andriaty et al., 2011).
The attitude of farmers to th e theme of counseling with
the needs of farmers, is closely related to t he technology
that will be applied by farmers. Due to the fact on the
field, there is still a gap between the technology
recommended through the counseling media with the
attitude of farmers and the adoption of integrated crop
management technology of chili pepper. Therefore, the
research aims to analyze the relationship between
counseling media, farmer attitude and adoption of
integrated crop management technology.
II. METHOD
1. Location and Research Design
This research was conducted in Maro s Regency, Tanralili
District, from April until August 2017. This research
according to the explanation including correlation
research type which aims to find whether there is
relationship between two variables or more. Correlation
research does not answer cause, but only explains the
presence or absence of relationship between variables
studied.
This study aims to explain the r elationship between
counseling media, attitude and adoption of integrated crop
management technology of chili pepper. The sample in
this research i s 85 chili farmers, selected by simple
random sampling method, the sample is homogeneous
and comes from three villages of Todoopulia,
Lekopancing and Borong in Maros Regency.
III. METHOD OF COLLECTING DATA
Data collection methods were conducted through
interviews using semi-structured questionnaires. The data
collected were farmer characteristics information, data on
farmer attit ude aspects; as well as the level of farmer
adoption related to inte grated management technology of
chili. Then the secondary data that is in the form of
statistical data from related institutions and previous
research reports derived from the journal.
IV. DATA ANALYSIS
Variable measurement scale is done so that research
variables can be measured through numbers so that it ca n
be used in statistical tests. In measuring this research
variable used ordinal scale.
Data analysis was done by using two methods: (1)
descriptive statistical analysis, and (2) quantitative
analysis. Descriptive analysis was conducted to find out
the level of intensity of counseling media, farmer attitude
toward counseling media and ad option rate of integrated
crop management technology of chili measured by using
an i ndex. Quantitative analysis is used to see the
correlation between extension media, farmer attitude and
adoption of Integrated Crop Management Technology of
Chili in Maros Regency. The anal ysis tool used is Chie
Square test.
V. RESULT
1. Characteristics of Farmers Respondents
The average age of the far mers was 39 years, with
variations ranging from 18 to 72 years. The results
showed that 77.65 percent of farmers respondents, aged
between 30 years to 54 years and 15.29 percent of farmers
under the age of 30 years. Most of the responden t farmers
have high school level of 41.67 percent, junior high
school as much as 32.14 percent, elementary school as
much as 17.86 percent and bachelor as much as 8.33
percent, thus providing a picture of sufficient capacity in
access information technology. The average farmer of the
respondent has a long experience of chili farming that is 5
to10 years as much as 74.12 percent, the exper ience of 11
to 15 years of farming as much as 20 percent and farmers
with experience chili peppers above 15 years as much as
5.88 percent. The family dependent of the responde nt
farmers is 68 .24 percent as many as 3 people, while the
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (IJEAB) Vol-2, Issue-6, Nov-Dec- 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijeab/2.6.8 ISSN: 2456-1878
www.ijeab.com Page | 2827
farmers who have a large number of d ependents of the
family with the number of dependents 4 to 7 people
amounted to 31.76 percent.
Farming done by the farmers of respo ndents get a high
profit and the farming is feasible to continue because the
profit earned reached IDR 101.643.518, with the R / C
ratio of 19.16, the value of R / C ratio is> 1 which means
the farming is feasible to be cultivated and developed.
Respondents belonging to farmer groups were 100
percent, with 67 percent of farmers joining farmer groups
for 1-5 years.
2. Relationship Between Counseling Media, Farmers
Attitudes and Adoption of Integrated Crop
Management Technology of Chili
Based on Chi-Square analysis, relationship between
counseling media, farmer attitude and Adoption of
Integrated Crop Management Technology of Chili,
obtained that X2 count = 3,391. Chi-Square X2 table with α =
0.05 is 9.49. Thus X2 counts < X2 tables, then H0 is accepted
and H2 is rejected, where there is no significant
relationship between counseling media and farmer
attitude. Chi-Square analysis results, obtained t hat X2 count
= 27,376. Chi-Square X2 table with a = 0.05 is 9.49. Thus
X2 count > X2 table, then H0 is rejected and H1 accepted,
where there is significant relationship between counseling
media with farmer adoption rate.
VI. DISCUSSION
Most respondent farmers are of productive age where the
average age of respondents is the ideal age for work and
has the ability to increase work productivity, and has a
great ability to absorb information and innovative
technology in agriculture. Farmer education is quite well
educated, because 41.67 percent are high school
graduates. Education is one of the factors that determine
the productivity of labor, in this case farmers. Farmers
who have higher levels of education have a better ability
to understand and apply Integrated Crop Management
Technology of Chili so that productivity becomes higher.
(Luluk et al., 2008).
Based on farming experience owned b y farmers, farmers
are expected to be able to overcome the problems faced in
the struggle. Therefore, the experience of chili farming is
very influential on the attitude and decision to adopt a
technology. Research from Rukka et al (2006), explains
that farmers' experience in farming has an effect on how
to respond to an innovation. The longer the experience of
farming, the level of response to a technology will be
higher. Based o n the number of dependents most
(68.24%) of farmers belonging to the small families.
Family members are one of the agricultural human
resources owned by farmers, especially those who are
productive and he lp in their far ming acti vities. Fa mily
members can also be a burden for their families if they are
not actively working to support farming activities
(Syafrudin, 2003).
Farming conducted b y the far mers of respondents is
reasonable to be cultivated where R / C ratio is greater
than 1. The ultimate goal of farming is to obtain inco me
and profit as much as possible from the farming process
undertaken. Farmers work their farms in order to
maximize profits so as to compensate for the expenses
incurred during the production process. In addition, the
participation of farmer respondents in farmer groups is
very large. Farmers recog nize that the fu nction of farmer
groups is as a forum for learning, working together and as
a unit of farm production. Group experience makes it
easier for farmers to communicate with peasants, more
open and easy to receive information about agriculture
and help each other in the process of farming. One of the
factors that can deter mine the success in farming is t he
length of time to become a member of the farmer group
because with the length of membership of the group then
more experience of farming more developed (Rizal &
Rahayu, 2015).
From the result of analysis of relationship between
counseling media with attitude of farmer to Integrated
Crop Management Technology of Chili, hence as many as
53 people accept the technology, but the counseling
media can not influence attit ude or behavior of far mer.
Counseling media offered by government agencies is not
maximized. Formation of attitude requires a process that
is influenced by internal factors (individual self) and
external factors (environment). Counseling media is a
supporting factor not a dominant factor. The higher the
education, the farmers experience, the farmers are not
easily influenced by the media, because of t he many
considerations and interaction of farmers with the
environment so that the decision or attitude o f farmers to
a tech nology is different from the purp ose of the
counseling. Kokolakis (2015) research results say that the
attitude and behavior of a person is a phenomenon that is
paradox. There is a real inconsistency between the
attitude and behavior of farmers to the counseling media.
Based on the results of research, the counseling media
related in the process of technology adoption to farmers.
Media of counseling through demonstration plots, printed
media, and electronic media affect the farmers change i n
adopting agricultural innovation (Rushendi, et.al, 2016).
The farmers receives information from counseling media,
but the information they receives is not directly accepted
and applied by the farmers, because the farmers will adapt
it to the environment and customs that are usually done in
the field. The choice of appropriate media in transferring
information technology should be the focus of attention,
the combination of the use of information media into