Relationship between space, flora and fauna in the book “O Guarani” by José de Alencar

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International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Computers (EEC Journal) [Vol-2, Issue-5, Sep-Oct 2017]
https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/eec.2.5.1 ISSN: 2456-2319
www.eecjournal.com Page | 1
Relationship between space, flora and fauna in
the book "O Guarani" by José de Alencar
Gleison Araujo Morais1, Greiciane da Silva Ambrosio2, Lídia Maria Nazaré Alves3,
Roberta Maura da Silva4, Glaciene J. H. Lyra5
1,2,4 Graduating in language and literature Portuguese / English - UEMG Carangola unit
3Doctor in Letters- UEMG Carangola unit
5Master in pedagogy- UEMG Carangola unit
Abstract This article was fostered by the Extension project
"Studies of gender and ethnicities in literature and its
repercussion in society", funded by PAPq, 2017. The PPC of
the course of Language and Literature on the University
of the State of Minas Gerais, Carangola unit (2016/2017),
about the Portuguese, African and brazilian literature in
Portuguese language, aims to work th e text, from various
perspectives, such as the philosophical, historical. this
article was a work from the “O Guaran i” by the author
José de Alencar, in order to work on the construction of
the characters from the flora and faunalisted in historical
context of the time, for this we used concepts of human is
ticgeography,of the authors Marcia Shirley Miguel
Feitosa, Claudia Leticia Gonçalves Mathur and Janete de
Jesus Serra Costa (2012), it were also used, contributions
on the romance, with the author AntônioCandido (1989;
1997), Dimas Antônio (1987) which talks about space
and romance, and Ana Carolina Santos (2010) which
discusses about th e nature of Brazilian romantic. In
addition to the ecocritical vision worked on studies such
as, Mariado Socorro Pereirade Almeida
(2014),Francisco Neto Pereira Pinto and Hilda Garcia
Dutra Ma galhães (2013), such theo rists contribu ted to
the approaches that will be presented. The methodology
of this study is presented with qualitative approaches,
geared to the bibliographic survey, about ecocrític as
relations: construction of space, characters, animals and
plants, in the work of Alencar. With this, concluded that
the issues relating to the environment have to do with
literature, which is a gateway to various thematic
discussions within various biases, since literary texts are
placed visions that fall into several areas of society.
Keyword The Guarani, space, fauna and flora,
ecocriticism.
I. INTRODUCTION
The students of the 3rd period of Literature, of the
University of the State of Minas Gerais, 2016, study the
literary text from several perspectives, because they
understand that the literary text should be analyzed
according to their social relations. This approach is one of
the requirements that is within the PPC of the course that,
in relation to their respective literatures, explains that the
literature has undergone several changes in its paradigms
of analysis, among others, the fact of observing the
"theoretical-interpretive b iases Capable of integrating
knowledge o f the literar y universe to critical attitudes,
which must, in any instance, illuminate the literary
artifact. "(JÚNIOR et al, 2016 p.32)
Put this approach type, the present work began to be
thought starting from the studies of the ECO-CRITICAL,
gone back to the relation of environmental thought, in that
the nature the human beings constituent part, since then,
thinking in the relationships man the nature it is of
addition importance. The ecocrítics studies in Brazil are
still put in an incipient way, this way, our work was made
starting from the studies of Ma ria Socorro Pereira of
Almeida (2014), Francisco Neto Pe reira Pinto and Hilda
Garcia Dutra Magalhães (2013) that developed works,
starting from the authors that speak regarding the subject.
With effect, we did not want to invalidate the literary
styles with their characteristics, above all for the ones that
they go back to environmental subjects. In that point, we
leaned on the ro mantic Indian Brazilian work "O
Guarani" of José de Alencar, because it exalts,
excessively, the relationship telúrica between the
characters and the space with the fauna and flora.
In this work, we will analyze the relationship characters,
space, fauna and flora main of the book. As the work
sends to a historical moment and makes references to
landscapes that already existed, to do this analysis, firstly,
it is necessary to describe which was that place that was
being described in the work, to know: "Of one of the
summits of the Mountain of the Organs a thread of water
that goes for the north slides, and thickened with the
springs that it receive s in his/her course of ten leagues,
turns laugh her flow." (ALENCAR, 1996 p.7), after being
placed inside of the work, it is necessar y to discourse a
International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Computers (EEC Journal) [Vol-2, Issue-5, Sep-Oct 2017]
https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/eec.2.5.1 ISSN: 2456-2319
www.eecjournal.com Page | 2
little regarding the writig type developed by the author, in
the case, to speak regarding the romance indianista.
Antonio Candido (1997) is one of the authors that, in his
book "Formation of the B razilian Literature" he
discoursed regarding the characteristics that took to the
formation of our literatures. In this work he speaks about
the indianismo, t hat was o ne of the moments i n that t he
way of describing things to go Brazilian emerged, for that
the description of the Indian as hero, the virgin forests
and the B razilian animals, they are quite focused in this
types of works.
When doing the analysis of the characters, to gether with
the space, the fauna and the flora, first we will enter with
the concepts of space and ambiance, made by Antonio
Dimas (1987) in hiswork" Spaceand Romance",it is
necessary to do this, because the fauna and the florawere
part of the space and the force that they exerted i n the
characters would characterize the present environment in
the text, besides the approach of the space, one sees with
these approaches characteristic of the humanist
geography, because according to Costa, Moraes and
Feitosa (2012 ), There is a desire to describe space as a
way of being of who is inserted inside it,in this case, there
is a space that already existed and how people felt about
it.
The methodology of this work is presented with
qualitative approaches, o riented to the bibliographical
survey, regarding the ecocritical relations: construction of
space, characters, fauna and flora, in the work by Alencar.
With this, it was concluded that the en vironmental issues
have much to do with literature, which is a gateway to
discussions of various themes, within several biases, since
in the literary texts are placed visions that are Different
spheres of society.
II. PLOT AND HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF THE
WORK
The Guarani is a Brazilian, Indian no vel, written by J osé
de Alencar, the work dates from the year 1857, and the
plot is in the region of the forests of Rio de Janeiro, which
had just been founded, the work itself sends us To this
period when he says: "In the year of grace of 1604, the
place we have just described was desolate and uncultured;
The city of Rio de Janeiro had been founded less than half
a century before, and civilization had no time to penetrate
the interior. "(ALENCAR, 1996 p.8)
The work insinuates several aspects of the formation of
Brazilian literature, because it tells the relationship of a
brave Indian named Peri, who, after saving the life o f the
daughter of D. Antôn io de Mariz, becomes related to t he
Portuguese family and to do everything for the joy and
life of Cecilia, who had him as a slave and friend.
The Indian goes through various adventures and makes all
the wishes of the girl, it is p ossible to analyze, with this
work, the relation of the formation of the Brazilian
identity, because many aspects of the cultural imposition
of the colonizer are found, on the colonized, as is exposed
in a Part of the book, when the girl sends the Indian,
already a Christian, to pray with her. "Cecilia knelt down.
- Save the queen! ... The Indian looked at her with an
expression of ineffable happiness. - You are a Christian,
Peri! She said, giving him a pleading look. His friend
understood her, and kneeli ng, he clasped his hands
together. - You will repeat all my words; and do not
forget them. Yes? "(ALENCAR, 1996 p.346)
The main plot of the work is the superhuman strength that
the Indian possesses, being able to face jaguars or any
kind of being to satisf y the desire of Cecilia, to whom he
was very submissive.
Then the savage distracted himself with the
flexibility of the rattlesnake as he launched the
boat; His feet and back pressed against his torso,
he fell and fell on the womb of the jaguar, who,
lying on his back, with his head pinned to the
ground by the hoo k, was struggling a gainst his
conqueror, with the claws. This fight lasted
minutes; The Indian, with his feet resting heavily
on the legs of the jaguar, and his body leaning on
the fork, kept the beast still, which had just run
through the woods, finding no obstacle to its
passage. (ALENCAR, 1996 p.26)
There is, in Alencar's work, what AntônioCândido calls
genealogical tendency, "the genealogical t endency
consists in choosing in the local past the elements
appropriate to a vision that, in a sen se, is nativist, but
seeks to get as close as possible to ideas And European
standards "(CÂNDIDO, 1989 P.172). For this reason, on
the one hand, we see the exaltation of the Peri Indian,
and, on the other, marks against this admiration. We
clearly see this question in the following passage of the
book, in which the Indian is thus placed as a noble man
and king, then, in co ntrast to this idea, he is again placed
as barbarous and ignorant, a condition tha t he poses by
comparing himself the norms of European behavior:
As he spoke, a surge of wild pride of strength
and courage glittered in his black eyes, giving
some nobility to his gesture. Though ignorant,
son of the forest, he was a king; had the kingship
of strength. He only concluded the haughtiness
of the warrior disappeared; He was shy and
modest; was no more than a barbarian in the face
of civilized creatures, whose superiority of
education his instinct recognized. (ALENCAR,
1996 P.112)
International Journal of Electrical, Electronics and Computers (EEC Journal) [Vol-2, Issue-5, Sep-Oct 2017]
https://dx.doi.org/10.24001/eec.2.5.1 ISSN: 2456-2319
www.eecjournal.com Page | 3
The main idea that we can perceive in relation to the
Guarani is the allegory of the myth of the creation of the
Brazilian people. At the end of the book, after fighting
with the Aimores and trying to save the family of D.
Antônio de Mariz, Peri catches Cecilia. The only one he
could take, and with a canoe he went down the Paquequer
River to be able to take her to his aunt in Rio de Janeiro,
but when she saw that if she left, the Indian could not stay
near her, for the place of him being the forest, the girl
decides that she would live in the forest along with Peri.
After that, there is a scene that refers to the biblical
passage of Noah in which the waters rise, Peri and Cecilia
climb on top of a palm tree to try to survive, but the palm
tree is torn and ends up taking both on the water, as it
were an ark, and the book ends with the palm vanishing
on the horizon, leading them both. "A virgin's
countenance was made of chaste blushes and clear smiles:
lips opened like the purple wings of a kiss, letting go of
the flight. The palm dragged by the impetuous torrent fled
... And disappeared into the horizon "(ALENCAR, SD
p.365).
In declar ing to Per i that she would stay in the forest,
Cecilia shows that Brazil comes from these two races, the
union of the European with the indigenous. That is why,
in the end, the end is with the boat disappearing into t he
horizon. From there, the Brazilian nation emerges.
According to biblical mythology, people exist from the
union of Adam and Eve, and in Alencar's book, it can be
understood that the Brazilian originated, initially, from
the union of Peri and Cecilia.
III. ASPECTS OF ROMANTIC INDIAN
LITERATURE
Alencar is one of the best-known names in Indian
literature, many factors contributed to the implantation of
this literary movement in Brazil, but its main origin came
from the desire to seek specific Brazilian things,
according to Antonio Candido (1997) this movement
Began to be introduced by the p oems of Durão and Basil,
besides the metamorphoses of Diniz.
In part of Europe was the seventeenth -century Theory of
Good Savage, by Rosseau, which had a direct influence
on Brazilian literary thought of the time. W e see this
figure of the good savage in the idealization of the Peri
character, from the book "The Guarani". The idealization
of the Indian was another characteristic that the romantic
writers of the time used in their works. The Peri Indian is
the figure of that native, with heroic traits, who
maintained a good relationship with the Portuguese.
From the friendly relation the relation betwee n the
colonizer and the colonized "seen without the look of
domination", as can be seen in the following fragment:
(...) The noble man translated Cecilia's poetic
language as best he could, which he had already
freed from his fright by force, despite his fear of
the savage, to know what he was saying. (...) Peri
returned to the house of D. Antônio de Mariz at
different times. The old gentle man r eceived him
cordially and treated him as a friend; His noble
character sympathized with that u ncultivated
nature. (ALENCAR, 1996 p.112; 114)
We see in this p assage characteristics of a good savage,
idealized by the colonizer, these characteristics confirm
what Candido (1997) affirms about the indianism of the
romantics, who was co ncerned with equipping the
autochthon, qualitatively, with characteristic s that ended
up highlighting or invented aspects of behavior that were
supported by chivalry, generosity and poetic language as
traces of these natives.
This inventing is very visible from the readings of
Modernist poets, such as Mário de Andrade, "We were
never ca techized. We did it was Carnival. The Indian
dressed as a senator of the Empire. P retending of Pitt.
Alternatively, appearing i n Alencar's operas full of good
Portuguese sentiments. "(Revista de Antropofagia, Year
1, No. 1, May 1928.) Or," Against the Indian of tocheiro.
The Indian son of Maria, godson of Catherine de Medici
and son-in-law of D. Antônio de Mariz "(Revista de
Antropofagia, Year 1, No. 1, May 1928.)
Alencaris them ostexpressive writer in this phase of
romanticism. The works Guarani (1857), Iracema (1865)
and Ubirajara (1874) extol the great lord of nationality
through the Indian, as hero and iconwarrior.
In O Guarani, the poetic figure of the Indian is always
present as a fruit of that Brazilian vegetation, and of the
natural landscapes that exalted nationalism, very strong
characteristics of Indianism that always sought the
exaltation of the national landscape to distance itself from
the European ideals. "The Indian began, in his language
so rich and poetic, with the sweet p ronunciation he
seemed to have learned from the auras of his land or the
birds of the virgin forests, this simple narration: (...)"
(ALENCAR, 1996 p. 110)
IV. THE CHARACTERS AND THE RELATION
SPACE, FAUNA AND FLORA
In the book O Guarani, the plot takes place in the forest of
the Atlantic Forest of the region of Rio de Janeiro. By
characterizing the relationship of the characters with
space, fauna and flora, we will be making use of what
Antonio Dimas calls "space and ambiance" in his book
Space and Romance.
(...) for the purposes of anal ysis, the reader is
required to have insight and familiarity with
literature so that space is pure and simple ... to be