SIGNIFICANCE OF HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN HEALTHCARE SERVICE PROVIDERS

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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308
SIGNIFICANCE OF HEALTH AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN
HEALTHCARE SERVICE PROVIDERS
ArunMohan1, H. Abdul Zubar2, K.Visagavel3
1PG Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Knowledge Institute of Technology, Tamilnadu, India
2Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Knowledge Institute of Technology, Tamilnadu, India
3Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Knowledge Institute of Technology, Tamilnadu, India
Abstract
The study aims at analysing the occupational health and safety of Health Care Service Providers by the information collected on
policy, organisation and administration, waste management, motivation, leadership and training, hazard control and risk
analysis, safety management, Fire control and industrial hygiene, monitoring, statistics and reporting, welfare facilities and
hazardous activities. Questionnaires were used for data collection. Health care industry is a sector in which occupational health
and safety has to be given more importance, but the study shows that the level of occupational health and safety is very less in the
Health care industry. The collected data are analyzed by D&S method and graphical method.
Keywords- Healthcare Industry, Occupational Health and Safety, Hazard, Accident, Safety Management
-------------------------------------------------------------------***-------------------------------------------------------------------
1. INTRODUCTION
Fire prevention plan, fire protection equipments, fire control
procedure, fire detection system, cleanliness, drinking water,
According to the study done on Healthcare Industry it was
ventilation and temperature, sanitation and food hygiene are
found that all industries in this sector do not have an
considered as factors on fire control and industrial hygiene.
occupational health and safety management system. Only
The information on welfare facilities are collected by
some of the healthcare industries are able to implement and
considering washing facilities, canteen, facility for sitting
manage the occupational health and safety management
and facility for storing.
system effectively and efficiently.
The
data
for
safety
management
are
collected
on
The main causes of ineffectiveness of occupational health
housekeeping, floor conditions, stairways and aisles, drug
and safety management system is the lack of awareness on
fridge, electrical safety, personal protective equipments,
the employees and the lack of management commitment.
work
equipment,
manual
handling,
display
screen
Many of the health care industries are giving least
equipments and security system. Waste management policy,
importance on occupational health and safety management.
waste collection, waste segregation, waste treatment and
waste disposals are considered as the factors on waste
Since healthcare industry deals with health of the public, the
management.
level of occupational health and safety should be well
maintained in order to increase the performance and
The most used chemicals in the healthcare industry are
efficiency of the industries. Most of the hazardous activities
disinfectants, medicines, cleaning chemicals and laboratory
are handled by nurses and medical attendants who are
agents.
unaware of the hazards and are untrained.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
The information for policy, organisation and administration
are collected on policy, communication, responsibility
Occupational health and safety in hospitals can be improved
allocation, documentation and management review. Hazard
by providing information, training and creating awareness
reporting,
hazard
identification,
risk
assessment,
[7]. A safety and health management system helps in
determination of control measures, implementation of risk
developing a safety culture in hospitals, which benefits both
assessment, record keeping and emergency action plan are
worker and patient safety [8]. The scope and duties of
considered as the factors on hazard control and risk analysis.
authorities which are directly related to patient safety have
to be clearly defined [5]. All hospital workers are to taught
The data for motivation, leadership and training are
and trained in safety measures[7]. To maintain patient
collected
on
training,
motivation,
education.
The
safety, National evidence-based guidelines of best practice
information on monitoring statistics and reporting are
are to be integrated into local practice [3]. The employer has
collected by considering proactive monitoring, reactive
the responsibility to provide a health and safety workplace
monitoring, incident investigation, corrective action and
in hospitals as per the international and national rules and
preventive action.
regulations [7]. By implementing appropriate fire protection
systems and suitable fire safety management measures the
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Volume: 03 Special Issue: 11 | NCAMESHE - 2014 | Jun-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org
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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308
level of fire safety can be increased [4]. It is important that
Table-1: The categories and values of D&S method
characteristics of preventable adverse events are to be
Sl.No
Category
D&S value
known by the healthcare professionals, managers and
Hazard control and Risk
1.
40
researchers [6]. The supervisors are to be trained to equip
analysis
them with skills to identify, analyse and eliminate different
Monitoring, Statistic and
occupational hazards in hospitals [7]. As the hospital boards
2.
20
Reporting
are responsible for the quality of care, itis essential for the
Policy,
Organization
&
boards to know how to achieve it [2].
3.
20
Administration
Motivation,
Leadership
3. METHOD
4.
20
and Training
5.
Total (%)
100
3.1 Questionnaire Development
The questionnaires were developed on policy, organisation
4. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
and
administration,
waste
management,
motivation,
leadership and training, hazard control and risk analysis,
4.1 Policy, Organisation and Administration
safety management, Fire control and industrial hygiene,
monitoring, statistics and reporting, welfare facilities and
90
hazardous activities. The questions are developed in such a
way that it is capable of ensuring the level of occupational
80
health and safety management system in the industry.
70
ON
3.2 Walk through Survey
60
The relevant data are collected with the help of framed
SATI
questionnaires by Walk through Surveys. It provides a better
50
ON
view of the actual conditions and situations inside a health
GANI
IT
40
care industry. The walk-through survey will provide direct
OR
AR
observations
Y,
T
30
CI SNII
3.3 Mail Questionnaires
20
POL
The prepared questionnaires are mailed to various healthcare
OF
ADM
10
industries. The mails are forwarded to the Health Safety and
Environment Mangers, Safety Officers, Safety Committee
0
AGE
AND
Members, Human Resource Managers.
NT
A B C D E F G H I J
E
3.4 Data Analysing
COMPANY
PERC
The data which have been gathered from the framed
questionnaires
are
analysed
by using
D&S
method,
graphical method, means and percentages.
Chart-1: Representation of Policy, Organisation and
Administration.
3.4.1 D&S Method
Most of the healthcare industries are having a better policy,
It is a method used for measuring and analysing the quantity
organization and administration system, which is the key
and quality of the safety activities inside an organisation or
factor for a strong health and safety management system. By
an industry[9]. The method was developed by Diekemper
considering the following factors the result has been
and Spartzin 1970.Latter the method was modified by
analysed and the average percentage of the values of each
Uusitalo and Mattila in 1990, again this method was
factor. The factors and the corresponding average values are
modified by ArtoKuusisto in 2000.The activity areas under
policy 60, communication 54.9, responsibility allocation
this method are Policy, Organization & Administration,
61.42, management review 67.77 and documentation with
Hazard control and Risk analysis, Motivation, Leadership
65.The
overall
percentage
of
organization
and
and Training and Monitoring, Statistic and Reporting with
administration is 63.01(Chart-1). The major source of
corresponding
weighted
values
as
20,40,20
and
20
information on occupational health and safety is by
respectively. Table1 shows the categories and D&S values.
seminars,
workshops,
training,
mass
media,
safety
The safety management system in an enterprise was
committee meetings, internet and bulletin boards.
assessed by using modified D&S method [1].
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Volume: 03 Special Issue: 11 | NCAMESHE - 2014 | Jun-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org
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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308
4.2 Hazard Control and Risk Analysis
The factors considered for evaluating motivation, leadership
and
training
with
their
corresponding
average
values(percentage) are training with 48%, motivation with
90
58.5% and education with 65.54%. The overall percentage
OL
of Motivation, Leadership and Training is 57.34(Chart-3).
80
R
70
ONT
4.4 Monitoring, Statistics and Reporting
C
S
60
D
YSI
AR
AL
50
80
D
HAZ
AN
40
70
AN
OF
SK
RI
30
60
CS
D
I
OF
T
50
AGE
20
S
AN
I
NT
NGI
40
E
10
AGE
AT
T
ST
30
NT
0
E
,
POR
PERC
E
20
A B C D E
F G H
I
J
NG
R
PERC
10
COMPANY
ORITI
0
ONM
A B C D E F G H I
J
Chart-2: Representation of Hazard Control and Risk
Analysis.
COMPANY
The result analysed by the data collected on hazard control
Chart-4: Representation of Monitoring, Statistics and
and risk analysis shows that most of the Healthcare
Reporting
Industries are having hazard control and risk analysis
procedure which helps in reducing the hazards at workplace.
The data collected on monitoring, statistics and reporting
The factors which has been considered for analysing the
shows that the Healthcare industries are having a better
hazard control and risk analysis in healthcare sectors with
system, which helps in increasing the safety level in the
their average value (percentage) are hazard reporting 61.65
industry. The factors with their average values (percentage)
hazard
identification
57.11,
risk
assessment
65.54,
are proactive monitoring 54, reactive monitoring 65.59,
determination of control measures 62.0, implementation of
incident investigation 66.66, corrective action 58.75 and
risk assessment 62.81, record keeping 69.06, emergency
preventive
action 55.69.
The
overall
percentage
for
action plan 66.25.The overall percentage for hazard control
monitoring, statistics and reporting is 60.138(Chart-4).
and risk analysis is 63.48(Chart-2).
4.5 Fire Control and Industrial Hygiene
4.3. Motivation, Leadership and Training
90
80
OL
80
&
R
P
NE
70
70
E
SHI
ONT
60
60
C
OF
R
E
HYGI
50
50
RI L
ADE
NG
F
A
AGE
E
I
40
L
NI
40
OF
R
NT
30
E
AI
ON,
R
30
I
T
20
AGE
NDUST
20
PERC
I
10
NT
VATI
E
T
10
0
AND
MO
PERC
A B C D E F G H
I
J
0
COMPANY
A B C D E F G H
I
J
COMPANY
Chart-5: Representation of Fire Control and Industrial
Hygiene
Chart-3: Representation of Motivation, Leadership and
Training.
_______________________________________________________________________________________
Volume: 03 Special Issue: 11 | NCAMESHE - 2014 | Jun-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org
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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308
The factors considered for evaluating fire control and
The statistics shows that most of the healthcare enterprises
industrial
Hygiene
with
their
corresponding
average
are giving importance on implementing, coordinating and
values(percentage) are fire prevention plan 56.66, fire
maintaining the safety within the industry. The statistics
protection equipment 61.25, fire control procedure 66.25,
gives an overall percentage in safety management as 62.56
fire detection system 69.99, cleanliness 65.69, drinking
(Chart-7).
water 74.06, ventilation and temperature 64.01, sanitation
63.75, food hygiene 68.88. The overall percentage for fire
4.8 Waste Management
control and industrial Hygiene is 65.61(Chart-5).
4.6 Welfare Facilities
90
Most of the healthcare industries are taking good care on
NTE 80
ensuring sufficient welfare facilities for the workers. The
M
result has been made by considering washing facilities,
E
70
canteen, facilities for sitting and facility for storing. The
AG
60
average values for the factors are washing facilities 64.26%,
AN
canteen 60%, and facilities for sitting at 58%, facility for
M
50
storing 59.99% respectively. The overall statistics of welfare
E
facility is 60.56 % (Chart-6).
40
AST
W
30
90
OF
20
E
80
AG
10
70
E
NTE 0
60
ARF
RC
L
A B C D E F G H I
J
50
E
PE
W 40
COMPANY
OF 30
20
AGE
Chart-8: Representation of Waste Management
NT 10
E
Most of the healthcare industries have a waste management
0
system, but the efficiency and effectiveness of the system is
PERC
A
B
C
D
E
F
G H
I
J
not enough to meet the requirement. The factors considered
for analysing the waste management with their average
COMPANY
value (percentage) are waste management policy 54%, waste
collection 56.66%, waste segregation 54%, waste treatment
Chart-6: Representation of Welfare Facilities.
61.39% and waste disposal 62.5%. The overall percentage
of waste management is 57.57(Fig.8).
4.7 Safety Management
4.9 D&S Method
100
D&S method is used for analysing the data collected and the
90
Y
overall percentage for each industry is also calculated
T
80
E
(Table-2A, Table-2B). According to D&S method industry
70
SAF
NT
Iis having a least value of 45.32 percentage and industry D
60
with 75.33 percentage, which shows that industry D is
OF
ME
having a better health and safety management system.
50
AGE
40
NAGE
Table -2A:Calculated D&S values
NT
30
E
MA
D&S
Calculated value of D&S
20
stand
Category
PERC
ard
A
B
C
D
E
10
value
0
Hazard
A B C D E F G H I
J
control
19.
23.
23.
33.
and
risk
40
30.76
COMPANY
99
96
22
00
analysis
Chart-7: Representation of Safety Management.
Monitori
20
10.
11.
10.
13.
14.35
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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308
ng
67
63
33
93
Table-3: Accident statistics for nurses
Statistics
Sl.no
Experience
Probability of accident
and
1
Less than 1 year
Very high
Reportin
2
1 to 3 year
High
g
3
3 to 5 year
Less
Policy,
4
Above 5 year
Very less
Organiza
10.
12.
8.9
15.
tion and
20
13.11
34
52
3
20
5. CONCLUSIONS
Administ
ration
A study on health and safety management system in
Motivati
healthcare
industry are
done
by considering
policy,
on
organisation
and
administration,
waste
management,
09.
12.
08.
13.
Leadersh
20
14.32
motivation, leadership and training, hazard control and risk
22
25
84
20
ip
and
analysis, safety management, Fire control and industrial
Training
hygiene,
monitoring,
statistics
and
reporting,
welfare
50.
60.
51.
75.
facilities and hazardous activities. It is found that the level
Total (%)
100
72.54
22
36
32
33
of health and safety management system is low with a least
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J represents each healthcare
value of 57.34% on motivation, leadership and training and
industry
a highest value of 65.61% on Fire control and industrial
hygiene.
Table -2B: Calculated D&S values
D&S
Calculated value of D&S
There is a need for adequate and continues training to the
stand
employees in healthcare industries on occupational health
Category
ard
F
G
H
I
J
and safety management, separate training has to be given to
value
those who are directly involved in hazardous activities.
Hazard
Control
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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308
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