Survival (FM 3-05.70)

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FM 3-05.70

(FM 21-76)









May 2002

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION:
Distribution authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their
contractors only to protect technical or operational information from
automatic dissemination under the International Exchange Program or by
other means. This determination was made on 5 December 2003. Other
requests for this document must be referred to Commander, United
States Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School,
ATTN: AOJK-DT-SF, Fort Bragg, North Carolina 28310-5000.
DESTRUCTION NOTICE:
Destroy by any method that must prevent disclosure of contents or
reconstruction of the document.
Headquarters, Department of the Army




*FM 3-05.70
Field Manual
Headquarters
No. 3-05.70
Department of the Army

Washington, DC, 17 May 2002

SURVIVAL
Contents
Page

PREFACE...................................................................... vii
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION ......................................................... 1-1
Survival Actions ........................................................... 1-1
Pattern for Survival ...................................................... 1-5
Chapter 2
PSYCHOLOGY OF SURVIVAL .................................. 2-1
A Look at Stress .......................................................... 2-2
Natural Reactions ........................................................ 2-6
Preparing Yourself ....................................................... 2-9
Chapter 3
SURVIVAL PLANNING AND SURVIVAL KITS .......... 3-1
Importance of Planning................................................ 3-2
Survival Kits ................................................................. 3-3
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution authorized to U.S. Government
agencies and their contractors only to protect technical or operational
information from automatic dissemination under the International Exchange
Program or by other means. This determination was made on 5 December 2003.
Other requests for this document must be referred to Commander, United States
Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School, ATTN: AOJK-DT-
SF, Fort Bragg, North Carolina 28310-5000.
DESTRUCTION NOTICE: Destroy by any method that must prevent disclosure
of contents or reconstruction of the document.
______________
* This publication supersedes FM 21-76, June 1992.
i

FM 3-05.70
Page
Chapter 4
BASIC SURVIVAL MEDICINE....................................4-1
Requirements for Maintenance of Health ....................4-1
Medical Emergencies...................................................4-8
Lifesaving Steps...........................................................4-9
Bone and Joint Injury .................................................4-18
Bites and Stings .........................................................4-21
Wounds ..................................................................... 4-27
Environmental Injuries ...............................................4-32
Herbal Medicines .......................................................4-35
Chapter 5
SHELTERS..................................................................5-1
Primary Shelter—Uniform............................................5-1
Shelter Site Selection...................................................5-1
Types of Shelters .........................................................5-3
Chapter 6
WATER PROCUREMENT ..........................................6-1
Water Sources .............................................................6-1
Still Construction ..........................................................6-8
Water Purification.......................................................6-13
Water Filtration Devices.............................................6-15
Chapter 7
FIRECRAFT.................................................................7-1
Basic Fire Principles ....................................................7-1
Site Selection and Preparation ....................................7-2
Fire Material Selection .................................................7-5
How to Build a Fire.......................................................7-6
How to Light a Fire.......................................................7-8
Chapter 8
FOOD PROCUREMENT .............................................8-1
Animals for Food..........................................................8-1
Traps and Snares ......................................................8-11
Killing Devices............................................................8-25
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FM 3-05.70
Page
Fishing Devices..........................................................8-27
Cooking and Storage of Fish and Game ...................8-35
Chapter 9
SURVIVAL USE OF PLANTS.....................................9-1
Edibility of Plants..........................................................9-1
Plants for Medicine ....................................................9-12
Miscellaneous Uses of Plants....................................9-16
Chapter 10
POISONOUS PLANTS..............................................10-1
How Plants Poison.....................................................10-1
All About Plants..........................................................10-2
Rules for Avoiding Poisonous Plants.........................10-2
Contact Dermatitis .....................................................10-3
Ingestion Poisoning....................................................10-4
Chapter 11
DANGEROUS ANIMALS ..........................................11-1
Insects and Arachnids ...............................................11-2
Leeches .....................................................................11-4
Bats ............................................................................11-5
Venomous Snakes.....................................................11-5
Snake-Free Areas......................................................11-6
Dangerous Lizards.....................................................11-7
Dangers in Rivers ......................................................11-8
Dangers in Bays and Estuaries .................................11-9
Saltwater Dangers .....................................................11-9
Other Dangerous Sea Creatures .............................11-12
Chapter 12
FIELD-EXPEDIENT WEAPONS, TOOLS, AND
EQUIPMENT
..............................................................12-1
Staffs ..........................................................................12-1
Clubs ..........................................................................12-2
Edged Weapons ........................................................12-4
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FM 3-05.70
Page
Other Expedient Weapons.........................................12-8
Cordage and Lashing ..............................................12-10
Rucksack Construction ............................................12-12
Clothing and Insulation ............................................12-13
Cooking and Eating Utensils....................................12-14
Chapter 13
DESERT SURVIVAL .................................................13-1
Terrain........................................................................13-1
Environmental Factors ...............................................13-3
Need for Water...........................................................13-7
Heat Casualties........................................................13-10
Precautions ..............................................................13-11
Desert Hazards ........................................................13-12
Chapter 14
TROPICAL SURVIVAL .............................................14-1
Tropical Weather........................................................14-1
Jungle Types..............................................................14-2
Travel Through Jungle Areas ....................................14-6
Immediate Considerations .........................................14-7
Water Procurement....................................................14-7
Food ...........................................................................14-9
Poisonous Plants .....................................................14-10
Chapter 15
COLD WEATHER SURVIVAL ..................................15-1
Cold Regions and Locations......................................15-1
Windchill.....................................................................15-2
Basic Principles of Cold Weather Survival ................15-4
Hygiene ......................................................................15-6
Medical Aspects.........................................................15-7
Cold Injuries ...............................................................15-7
Shelters ....................................................................15-13
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FM 3-05.70
Page
Fire ...........................................................................15-17
Water........................................................................15-20
Food .........................................................................15-22
Travel .......................................................................15-25
Weather Signs .........................................................15-26
Chapter 16
SEA SURVIVAL ........................................................16-1
The Open Sea............................................................16-1
Seashores................................................................16-35
Chapter 17
EXPEDIENT WATER CROSSINGS..........................17-1
Rivers and Streams ...................................................17-1
Rapids ........................................................................17-2
Rafts...........................................................................17-5
Flotation Devices .....................................................17-10
Other Water Obstacles ............................................17-12
Vegetation Obstacles...............................................17-12
Chapter 18
FIELD-EXPEDIENT DIRECTION FINDING ..............18-1
Using the Sun and Shadows .....................................18-1
Using the Moon..........................................................18-5
Using the Stars ..........................................................18-5
Making Improvised Compasses.................................18-8
Other Means of Determining Direction ......................18-8
Chapter 19
SIGNALING TECHNIQUES ......................................19-1
Application .................................................................19-1
Means for Signaling ...................................................19-2
Codes and Signals...................................................19-12
Aircraft Vectoring Procedures..................................19-16
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FM 3-05.70
Page
Chapter 20
SURVIVAL MOVEMENT IN HOSTILE AREAS........20-1
Phases of Planning ....................................................20-1
Execution ...................................................................20-4
Return to Friendly Control..........................................20-9
Chapter 21
CAMOUFLAGE .........................................................21-1
Personal Camouflage ................................................21-1
Methods of Stalking ...................................................21-5
Chapter 22
CONTACT WITH PEOPLE .......................................22-1
Contact With Local People ........................................22-1
Survival Behavior .......................................................22-2
Changes to Political Allegiance .................................22-3
Chapter 23
SURVIVAL IN MAN-MADE HAZARDS ....................23-1
The Nuclear Environment ..........................................23-1
Biological Environments...........................................23-17
Chemical Environments...........................................23-22
Appendix A
SURVIVAL KITS......................................................... A-1
Appendix B
EDIBLE AND MEDICINAL PLANTS ......................... B-1
Appendix C
POISONOUS PLANTS............................................... C-1
Appendix D
DANGEROUS INSECTS AND ARACHNIDS ............ D-1
Appendix E
VENOMOUS SNAKES AND LIZARDS ..................... E-1
Appendix F
DANGEROUS FISH AND MOLLUSKS ......................F-1
Appendix G
ROPES AND KNOTS ................................................. G-1
Appendix H
CLOUDS: FORETELLERS OF WEATHER............... H-1
Appendix I
EVASION PLAN OF ACTION FORMAT......................I-1
GLOSSARY.................................................... Glossary-1
BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................Bibliography-1
INDEX ................................................................... Index-1
vi

Preface
As a soldier, you can be sent to any area of the world.
It may be in a temperate, tropical, arctic, or subarctic
region. You expect to have all your personal
equipment and your unit members with you wherever
you go. However, there is no guarantee it will be so.
You could find yourself alone in a remote area—
possibly enemy territory—with little or no personal
gear. This manual provides information and describes
basic techniques that will enable you to survive and
return alive should you find yourself in such a
situation.
If you are a trainer, use this information as a base on
which to build survival training. You know the areas
to which your unit is likely to deploy, the means by
which it will travel, and the territory through which it
will travel. Read what this manual says about
survival in those particular areas and find out all you
can about those areas. Read other books on survival.
Develop a survival-training program that will enable
your unit members to meet any survival situation
they may face. It can make the difference between life
and death.
The proponent of this publication is the United States
Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and
School (USAJFKSWCS). Submit comments and
recommended changes to Commander, USAJFKSWCS,
ATTN: AOJK-DT-SF, Fort Bragg, NC 28310-5000.
Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine
nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.
vii

Chapter 1
Introduction
This manual is based entirely on the keyword
SURVIVAL. The letters in this word can help
guide your actions in any survival situation.
Learn what each letter represents and practice
applying these guidelines when conducting
survival training. Remember the word
SURVIVAL.
SURVIVAL ACTIONS
1-1. The following paragraphs expand on the meaning of each
letter of the word survival. Study and remember what each letter
signifies because some day you may have to make the word work
for you.

S—SIZE UP THE SITUATION
1-2. If you are in a combat situation, find a place where you can
conceal yourself from the enemy. Remember, security takes
priority. Use your senses of hearing, smell, and sight to get a feel
for the battlespace. Determine if the enemy is attacking,
defending, or withdrawing. You will have to consider what is
developing on the battlespace when you make your survival plan.

Surroundings
1-3. Determine the pattern of the area. Get a feel for what is
going on around you. Every environment, whether forest, jungle,
or desert, has a rhythm or pattern. This tempo includes animal
and bird noises and movements and insect sounds. It may also
include enemy traffic and civilian movements.

Physical Condition
1-4. The pressure of the battle you were in or the trauma of
being in a survival situation may have caused you to overlook
wounds you received. Check your wounds and give yourself first
aid. Take care to prevent further bodily harm. For instance, in
any climate, drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration. If you
1-1

Document Outline

  • FM 3-05.70
    • Preface
    • Chapter 1 Introduction
    • Chapter 2 Psychology of Survival
    • Chapter 3 Survival Planning and Survival Kits
    • Chapter 4 Basic Survival Medicine
    • Chapter 5 Shelters
    • Chapter 6 Water Procurement
    • Chapter 7 Firecraft
    • Chapter 8 Food Procurement
    • Chapter 9 Survival Use of Plants
    • Chapter 10 Poisonous Plants
    • Chapter 11 Dangerous Animals
    • Chapter 12 Field-Expedient Weapons, Tools, and Equipment
    • Chapter 13 Desert Survival
    • Chapter 14 Tropical Survival
    • Chapter 15 Cold Weather Survival
    • Chapter 16 Sea Survival
    • Chapter 17 Expedient Water Crossings
    • Chapter 18 Field-Expedient Direction Finding
    • Chapter 19 Signaling Techniques
    • Chapter 20 Survival Movement In Hostile Areas
    • Chapter 21 Camouflage
    • Chapter 22 Contact With People
    • Chapter 23 Survival In Man-Made Hazards
    • Appendix A Survival Kits
    • Appendix B Edible and Medicinal Plants
    • Appendix C Poisonous Plants
    • Appendix D Dangerous Insects and Arachnids
    • Appendix E Venomous Snakes and Lizards
    • Appendix F Dangerous Fish and Mollusks
    • Appendix G Ropes and Knots
    • Appendix H Clouds: Foretellers of Weather
    • Appendix I Evasion Plan of Action Format
    • Glossary
    • Bibliography
    • Index
    • Authentication Page