The 1905 Revolution

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  1. The 1905 Revolution
  2. Prelude to Revolution
    • 1903:
      • Opposition parties & appalling living conditions throughout Russia
      • Strikes, demonstrations, protests
      • Nobles warn Russia near revolution
      • Slightly relaxed censorship leads to explosion of anti-gov’t writing
      • Gov’t attempt to set up gov’t-controlled trade union leads to further strikes
    • 1904:
      • Tsar hopes to draw country together in war w/ Japan
      • Russia suffers humiliating defeats
  4. Bloody Sunday
    • Sunday, Jan 22, 1905:
    • 200,000 protesters gather outside Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, hoping Tsar will read their petition
    • Father Gapon, priest leads them
    • 100s carry tsar’s picture, showing respect
    • Tsar fled earlier in the day
    • Cossacks, w/o warning or provocation, fire on the crowd, then charge with sabers drawn
    • Tsar finally lost respect of workers & peasants
  5. Aftermath
    • For 10 months Russia teetered on the brink of revolution
      • Tsar’s uncle assassinated
      • Moscow workers barricade streets
      • Sailors on battleship Potemkin mutiny
      • September: General Strike paralyzes Russia
      • Vladimir Lenin & Leon Trotsky return to Russia from exile
      • Workers’ Councils ( Soviets ) formed in towns
      • Peasants murdered nobles/landlords
  6. How did the Tsar Survive?
    • October: Tsar issues ‘October Manifesto’
      • Offered Duma (parliament)
      • Free speech
      • Right to form political parties
    • November Tsar offered financial help for peasants
    • These actions split opponents:
      • Middle-class delighted (Cadets)
      • Revolutionary groups suspicious
    • Tsar made peace w/ Japan
    • Tsar moved best troops back to western Russia
    • Peasant rebellions ruthlessly crushed
  7. Tsar’s Retaliation
    • December 1905:
      • Leaders of St Petersburg & Moscow soviets arrested, exiled to Siberia
      • Troops shots workers who resisted
    • March 1906:
      • Revolution crushed, leaders killed, exiled, or hiding
    • As long as Tsar had monopoly of violence (military control) there would be no revolution
    • May 1906 ‘Fundamental Laws’ issued:
      • Duma can make laws, but Tsar could veto & rule by decree
      • In other words, Tsar still autocrat
  8. The Tsar released the Cossacks to terrorize villages and peasant towns believed to favor revolution.
  9. Focus Task: The Tsar survived! Long live the Tsar!
    • How did the Tsar survive the 1905 revolution?
    • On the left-hand side, list the different steps the Tsar took to crush the revolution in 1905.
    • Explain how each step helped him.
    • As you read your notes & discuss, list on the right-hand side the longer-term measures the Tsar took to keep control after the revolution.
    • Explain how each measure helped.
  10. Fin
  11. The People’s Point of View
    • Lord, we workers, our children, our wives and our old, helpless parents have come, Lord, to seek truth, justice and protection from you. We are impoverished and oppressed, unbearable work is imposed on us, we are despised and not recognized as human beings. We are treated as slaves, who must bear their fate and be silent. We have suffered terrible things, but we are pressed ever deeper into the abyss of poverty, ignorance and lack of rights. We ask little: to reduce the working day to eight hours and to provide a minimum wage of a rouble a day. Officials have taken the country into a shameful war. We working men have no say in how the taxes we pay are spent. Do not refuse to help your people. Destroy the wall between yourself and your people.
      • Petition to the Tsar presented by Father Gapon, January 22, 1905
      • Are these demands revolutionary?
      • Two words that sum up attitude of petitioners to the Tsar
  12. The Tsar’s Point of View
    • Saturday 21 January
      • A clear, frosty day. There was much activity and many reports. Fredericks cane to lunch. Went for a long walk. Since yesterday all the factories and workshops in St Petersburg have been on strike. Troops have been brought in to strengthen the garrison. The workers have conducted themselves calmly hitherto. At the head of the workers is some socialist priest: Gapon
    • Sunday 22 January
      • A painful day. There have been serious disorders in St Petersburg because workmen wanted to come up to the Winter Palace. Troops had to open fire in several places in the city; there were many killed and wounded. God, how painful and sad! Mama arrived from town, straight to church. I lunched with all the others. Went for a walk with Misha. Mama stayed overnight.
        • From the Tsar’s diary, 1905
        • Do these documents suggest that the tsar was out of touch? Explain