The Effect of Chlorogenic Acid Enriched Coffee (Coffee Shape) on Weight When Used in Overweight People

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Ayton Global Research – Independent Market Study on the effect of Coffee Shape on weight loss
The Effect of Chlorogenic Acid Enriched
Coffee (Coffee Shape) on Weight When

Used in Overweight People


An
independent
market
research, Research, 2007; 35:900 -908, which
comparative, randomized, double-blind, 4-
concluded that “we conclude that chlorogenic
week study on 62 healthy volunteers using acid enriched instant coffee appears to have a
instant coffee enriched with chlorogenic significant effect on the absorption and
acid – Coffee Shape – compare with normal utilization of glucose from the diet. This effect, if
instant coffee show that the average losses the coffee is used for an extended time, may
result in reduced body mass and body fat when
in weight in the chlorogenic acid enriched compared with the use of normal instant
coffee was 1.35kg and 0.12kg in the normal coffee.”. This study reveals that 75% of the
instant coffee. These results confirmed prior volunteers drinking Coffee Shape lost on
medical research on the effect of average 1.60 kg over 2 weeks and 80% of
Chlorogenic Acid Enriched Coffee published the volunteers lost on average 2.02 kg over
in the Journal of International Medical 4 weeks.
KEY WORDS: Chlorogenic Acid; Coffee; Weight Loss

Introduction
Coffee is an extremely rich source of chlorogenic acids. The amounts of chlorogenic acids
and caffeine in coffee are comparable.1,2
Chlorogenic acids are an important group of biologically active dietary phenols; the best
known being 5-caffeoylquinic acid. The daily intake of chlorogenic acids by coffee drinkers is
considered to be in the range 0.5 – 1.0 g 2-3 and chlorogenic acids have been found to exhibit
antioxidant activity in vitro3.
A previous study has shown that chlorogenic acid supplemented coffee may reduce body
mass and body fat when compared with the use of instant coffee4.
ATP Life Europe, the importer of Coffee Shape - commissioned an independent market
research study carried out by Ayton Global Research, UK.
The purpose of the study was to
assess the weight loss results capability of Coffee Shape in a comparative, double-blind
study, 4-week study on 62 volunteers. The overall aim of the study was to provide
quantifiable and unbiased factual evidence that Coffee Shape is an effective ‘weight loss
support tool’ even when an individual does not change their diet.
1 Results of Independent Market Research Study on Coffee Shape - June 2009


Ayton Global Research – Independent Market Study on the effect of Coffee Shape on weight loss
WHAT IS COFFEE SHAPE?
Coffee Shape is a food supplement containing green coffee extract. Each sachet of Coffee
Shape contains 2820mg of Coffea Arabica, and 180mg of Coffea canephora. The Coffea
canehora
contains 45% of chlorogenic acid. Coffee Shape is a chlorogenic acid enriched
coffee (2.7%), equivalent to 81mg of chlorogenic acid. The recommended daily dosage is
one cup of Coffee Shape only, before breakfast.
Materials and methods
Products Used
The test coffee product used in this study was Coffee Shape, packed in sachets each
containing 3000 mg of instant coffee. A total of 180 mg per 3000 mg of the Coffee Shape
product comprises an extract of green coffee, obtained by a traditional process, from the
beans of Coffea canephora. This is particularly rich in chlorogenic acids (45-50%). The
extraction process is performed with alcohol as the solvent and the extract contains <2% of
caffeine.
Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica Original was used as the comparative product. The literature
indicates that instant coffees contain 30 -40 mg/g of chlorogenic acid5.
Study
The study was carried out to evaluate, over a period of 4 weeks, the effect of drinking
Coffee Shape compared with the effect of drinking normal instant coffee on weight when
taken as part of a regular diet in slight to moderately overweight volunteers.
Volunteer recruitment, study design and treatment
The volunteers recruited through Ayton Global Research were slightly to moderately
overweight (BMI 25 – 30) non-smokers not taking any drugs on a regular basis for the
treatment of chronic disease. All the volunteers were asked to follow the same lifestyle that
they had prior to entering the study and not to commence other weight loss programmes
whilst participating in the study. They did not receive any information on diet and were also
told to maintain their current physical exercise. A total of 62 volunteers were selected as
part of this study.
The study was designed as a randomised, placebo-controlled study. Half of the volunteers
drank Coffee Shape [one cup(sachet)/ day (3g/day of coffee) while the other half drank
normal Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica Original blend instant coffee. The duration of the study
was 4 weeks.
The weight, waist, bust and hips were measured initially and once a week.
2 Results of Independent Market Research Study on Coffee Shape - June 2009


Ayton Global Research – Independent Market Study on the effect of Coffee Shape on weight loss
WHICH GLOBAL RESEARCH FIRM CONDUCTED THE RESEARCH?
Ayton Global Research, based in the UK managed the independent study, using appropriate
protocols.
Ayton Global Research (AGR) (www.aytonresearch.co.uk) was originally established in
1995 by Sue Ayton to provide consumer trials for the cosmetics and toiletries industry. It is
now proud to offer comprehensive consumer research in many business areas, but
predominantly Cosmetics and Food and Drink.
Statistical analysis
Data were presented as means ± SD. Student’s t-test (parametric test) was used to compare
differences between values. Differences with a P-value < 0.05 was considered to be
statistically significant. Data was verified to validate it was following a Gaussian curve using
Skewness and Kurtosis parameters.
Results
62 volunteers (BMI 25-30) were enrolled in this study; 30 received Coffee Shape™ and 32 received
the normal instant coffee (Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica Original).
Table 1 presents the measurements for the two groups of participants at the start of study with
respect to the parameters of interest. Results from the weight study (table 2) show that the mean
±SD weight reductions for Coffee Shape and normal instant coffee drinkers were 1.35 ± 0.81 and
0.12 ± 0.27 kg, respectively, over a 4 week period.

TABLE 1:
Mean ± SD anthropometric parameters for overweight volunteers taking Coffee Shape (total
3g/day) or Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica Original instant coffee (total 3g/day) for 4 weeks.
Group

No. of volunteers
Start weight (Kg)
Coffee Shape™
30
76.65 ± 7.25
Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica
32
77.44 ± 12.93
Original

TABLE 2:
Mean ± SD weight for overweight volunteers taking Coffee Shape™ (total 3g/day) or Nescafé®
Expresso Pur Arabica Original instant coffee (total 3g/day) for 4 weeks.

Weight (kg)
Group
Start
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Difference
(Start – week 4)
Coffee
76.65
76.08
75.55
75.29
75.30
1.35
Shape™
± 7.25
± 7.19
± 7.44
± 8.00
± 8.06
±0.81
Nescafé®
77.44
77.59
77.42
77.17
77.32
0.12
Expresso Pur
± 12.93
± 13.14
± 13.03 ± 12.99
± 13.20
±0.27
Arabica
Original
3 Results of Independent Market Research Study on Coffee Shape - June 2009


Ayton Global Research – Independent Market Study on the effect of Coffee Shape on weight loss

Results from the waist study (table 3 and 4) show that the mean ±SD waist reductions for Coffee
Shape and normal instant coffee drinkers were 2.77 ± 1.65 and 0.02 ± 0.27 cm, respectively, over a 4
week period.
TABLE 3:
Mean ± SD anthropometric parameters for overweight volunteers taking Coffee Shape (total
3g/day) or Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica Original instant coffee (total 3g/day) for 4 weeks.
Group

No. of volunteers
Start waist (cm)
Coffee Shape™
30
88.53 ± 5.63
Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica
32
89.77 ± 8.60
Original

TABLE 4:
Mean ± SD waist measurement for overweight volunteers taking Coffee Shape™ (total 3g/day) or
Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica Original instant coffee (total 3g/day) for 4 weeks.

Waist (cm)
Group
Start
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Difference
(Start – week 4)
Coffee
88.53
87.62
86.53
86.09
85.75
2.77
Shape™
± 5.63
± 6.14
± 7.06
± 7.22
± 7.28
± 1.65
Nescafé®
89.77
91.23
90.47
89.80
89.75
0.02
Expresso Pur
± 8.60
± 9.64
± 8.64
± 8.60
± 8.50
± 0.10
Arabica
Original

Results from the hips study (table 5 and 6) show that the mean ±SD hips reductions for Coffee Shape
and normal instant coffee drinkers were 2.05 ± 1.65 and 0.02 ± 0.41 cm, respectively, over a 4 week
period.

TABLE 5:
Mean ± SD anthropometric parameters for overweight volunteers taking Coffee Shape (total
3g/day) or Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica Original instant coffee (total 3g/day) for 4 weeks.
Group

No. of volunteers
Start hips (cm)
Coffee Shape™
30
105.61 ± 5.76
Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica
32
106.45 ± 10.02
Original



4 Results of Independent Market Research Study on Coffee Shape - June 2009


Ayton Global Research – Independent Market Study on the effect of Coffee Shape on weight loss

TABLE 6:
Mean ± SD hips measurement for overweight volunteers taking Coffee Shape™ (total 3g/day) or
Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica Original instant coffee (total 3g/day) for 4 weeks.

Hips (cm)
Group
Start
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Difference
(Start – week 4)
Coffee
105.61
104.32
103.96
103.91
103.56
2.05
Shape™
± 5.76
± 4.72
± 5.45
± 6.19
± 6.33
± 0.57
Nescafé®
106.45
105.45
106.02
106.19
106.03
0.41
Expresso Pur
± 10.02
± 9.82
± 9.93
± 10.26
± 9.59
± 6.43
Arabica
Original

Results from the bust study (table 7 and 8) show that the mean ±SD bust reductions for Coffee
Shape and normal instant coffee drinkers were 1.42 ± 0.72 and 0.37 ± 0.46 cm, respectively, over a 4
week period.
TABLE 7:
Mean ± SD anthropometric parameters for overweight volunteers taking Coffee Shape (total
3g/day) or Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica Original instant coffee (total 3g/day) for 4 weeks.
Group

No. of volunteers
Start bust (cm)
Coffee Shape™
30
98.93 ± 6.14
Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica
32
98.20 ± 8.39
Original

TABLE 8:
Mean ± SD bust measurement for overweight volunteers taking Coffee Shape™ (total 3g/day) or
Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica Original instant coffee (total 3g/day) for 4 weeks.

Bust (cm)
Group
Start
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Difference
(Start – week 4)
Coffee
98.93
98.10
97.86
97.40
97.51
1.42
Shape™
± 6.14
± 6.04
± 6.28
± 6.77
± 6.86
± 0.72
Nescafé®
98.20
97.54
97.70
97.01
97.83
0.37
Expresso Pur
± 8.39
± 8.29
± 9.14
± 8.73
± 8.85
± 0.46
Arabica
Original



5 Results of Independent Market Research Study on Coffee Shape - June 2009


Ayton Global Research – Independent Market Study on the effect of Coffee Shape on weight loss
For the Coffee Shape drinkers, over a 4 weeks period the weight loss was on average 2.02 kg (range
0.12 to 5.53 kg); 4.87 cm around the waist (range 1.27 to 15.24 cm); 3.27 cm around the hips (range
1 – 7.62 cm) and 3.16 cm around the bust ( range 0.5 – 10.16 cm).
Coffee Shape
Nescafé® Expresso Pur Arabica Original


TABLE 9:
TABLE 12:
Coffee Shape™ average, min and max weight
Nescafé® Expresso average, min and max weight
measurements for 4 weeks for the Coffee Shape
measurements for 4 weeks for the Nescafé® drinker
drinker who lost weight.
who lost weight.
Coffee Shape Weight Loss (Kg)
Nescafé Weight Loss (Kg)
Weight
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Weight
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Average
1.21
1.60
2.05
2.02
Average
(0.15)
0.02
0.27
0.12
Minimum
0.05
0.1
0.12
0.12
Minimum
(1.82)
(2.72)
(1.36
(2.27)
Maximum
5.59
5.53
5.71
5.53
Maximum
1.40
1.76
2.71
3.62


TABLE 10:
TABLE 13:
Coffee Shape™ average, min and max waist
Nescafé® Expresso average, min and max waist
measurements for 4 weeks for the Coffee Shape
measurements for 4 weeks for the Nescafé® drinker
drinker who lost weight.
who lost weight.
Coffee Shape Waist Loss (cm)
Nescafé Waist Loss (cm)
Waist
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Waist
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Average
3.02
4.53
4.17
4.87
Average
(1.46)
(0.70)
(0.03)
0.02
Minimum
0.5
1
1
1.27
Minimum
(7.62)
(10.16)
(7.62)
(7.62)
Maximum
7.62
10.16
12.7
15.24
Maximum
6.35
5.08
5.08
5.08


TABLE 11:
TABLE 14:
Coffee Shape™ average, min and max hips
Nescafé® Expresso average, min and max hips
measurements for 4 weeks for the Coffee Shape
measurements for 4 weeks for the Nescafé® drinker
drinker who lost weight.
who lost weight.
Coffee Shape Hips Loss (cm)
Nescafé Hips Loss (cm)
Hips
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Hips
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Average
3.66
3.49
3.91
3.27
Average
1.00
0.43
0.26
0.41
Minimum
0.64
1
1
1
Minimum
(3.81)
(5.08)
(5.08)
(6.35)
Maximum
10.16
12.7
12.7
7.62
Maximum
5.08
5.08
3.81
5.08


TABLE 12:
TABLE 15:
Coffee Shape™ average, min and max bust
Nescafé® Expresso average, min and max bust
measurements for 4 weeks for the Coffee Shape
measurements for 4 weeks for the Nescafé® drinker
drinker who lost weight.
who lost weight.
Coffee Shape Bust Loss (cm)
Nescafé Bust Loss (cm)
Hips
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Hips
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Average
2.98
2.7
3.70
3.16
Average
0.66
0.50
1.19
0.37
Minimum
1
1
1
0.5
Minimum
(3.81)
(2.54)
(2.54)
(5.08)
Maximum
5.08
7.62
7.62
10.16
Maximum
5.08
5.08
5.08
7.62
A number in () indicates a weight gain, a waist gain, a hips gain or bust gain.
A statistical analysis confirmed that 95% of the values follow a Gaussian curve (skewness and
kurtosis values are between -2 and +2).
The difference in weight loss between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05) and the
weight loss in the Coffee Shape group by the end of the study was also statistically significant.





6 Results of Independent Market Research Study on Coffee Shape - June 2009


Ayton Global Research – Independent Market Study on the effect of Coffee Shape on weight loss
Finally, 75% of the volunteers (table 16) on Coffee Shape lost an average of 1.60 kg over a 2 week
period and 80% of the volunteers lost on average 2.02 kg over a 4 week period.

TABLE 16:
Percentage of volunteers who have lost weight using Coffee
Shape™ for 4 weeks for the Coffee Shape drinker who lost
weight.

Coffee Shape Percentage Volunteers with weight Loss (%)
%
Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Weight
59.38
75.00
71.43
80.00
Waist
45.16
56.67
53.85
59.09
Hips
45.16
50.00
57.69
54.55
Bust
38.71
53.33
53.85
54.55


References
1 Greenberg JA, Axen KV, Schnoll R, et al: Coffee, tea and diabetes: the role of weight loss and
caffeine. Int J Obesity 2005, 29: 1121-1129
2 Clifford MN: Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates – nature, occurrence, dietary burden,
absorption and metabolism. J Sci Food Agric 2000; 80:1033-1043
3 Olthof MR, Hollman PCH, Katan MB: Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans. J
Nutr 2000
; 131:66-71
4 E. Thom: The effect of Chlorogenic Acid Enriched Coffee on Glucose Absorption in Healthy
volunteers and its effect on Body Mass When Used Long-Term in Overweight and Obese People. J
Int Medical Research 2007:
35: 900-908
5 Johnston KL, Clifford MN, Morgan LM: Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion
and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effexts of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Am J Clin Nutr
2003
; 78:728-733.
7 Results of Independent Market Research Study on Coffee Shape - June 2009