The State of the Forest

Text-only Preview

GLOBAL FOREST WATCH — an initiative of World Resources Institute
10 G Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002 USA
Telephone: +1 202-729-7694
Facsimile: +1 202-729-7686
www.globalforestwatch.org
The State of the Forest
FOREST WATCH INDONESIA
Jl. Sempur Kaler No. 7 Bogor
INDONESIA
Telephone: +62 251-382-805
Facsimile: +62 251-317-926
Email: [email protected]
INDONESIA
WORLD RESOURCES INSTITUTE
10 G Street, NE
Washington, DC 20002 USA
Telephone: +1 202-729-7600
Facsimile: +1 202-729-7610
www.wri.org
F O R E S T W A T C H I N D O N E S I A • W O R L D R E S O U R C E S I N S T I T U T E • G L O B A L F O R E S T W A T C H

This report, The State of the Forest: Indonesia, is a
ment in Indonesia. The objective of FWI’s pro-
product of Forest Watch Indonesia (FWI) and
grams is to build and develop data on forests and
Global Forest Watch (GFW). FWI was initiated in
forest issues, and to promote information transpar-
late 1997 by some 20 nongovernmental organiza-
ency in Indonesia by strengthening alternative data
tions to play its role as a civil society component,
and information provision.
which encourages acceleration of the democratiza-
tion process in terms of forest resources allocation
Global Forest Watch seeks to make information
and management in Indonesia. GFW was launched
available rapidly to an ever wider audience by
in 1998 by the World Resources Institute (WRI) to
providing forest information and maps on-line and
work in alliance with nongovernmental organiza-
developing a Website (www.globalforestwatch.org)
tions and local leaders from forested countries
to post results from its multiple field and coopera-
around the world.
tive activities in Cameroon, Canada, Chile, Gabon,
Indonesia, Russia, and Venezuela. Reports, maps
Forest Watch Indonesia seeks to develop indepen-
and information from credible sources will be
dent citizen capacity to gather, process and dis-
available for downloading. Anyone with access to
seminate forest data, maps and policy-relevant
the Internet can consult GFW data and contribute
information about what is happening to
by providing information or views directly on-line.
Indonesia’s forests and forest-dependent peoples.
We hope that the array of products and activities
FWI is an independent forest monitoring network
will lead to a more constructive dialogue between
made up of individuals and organizations that are
forest managers and users at the local, national,
committed to realizing sustainable forest manage-
and international levels.

The State of the Forest: Indonesia

The State of the Forest: Indonesia
Editor: Emily Matthews
Forest Watch Indonesia
Global Forest Watch
Lead Authors
Lead Authors
Restu Achmaliadi, I.G. Maha Adi, Y. Martin Hardiono, Hariadi Kartodihardjo, Fachrurraji CH. Malley,
Charles Victor Barber
Dominggus A. Mampioper, E.G. Togu Manurung, Abdon Nababan, Lyndon B. Pangkali, A. Ruwindrijarto,
Emily Matthews
Lisken L.M. Situmorang, Wardiyono
Contributing Authors
Contributing Authors
David Brown
Timothy H. Brown
Yasir Al Fatah, Haryanto R. Putro, Bambang Hero Saharjo, Silverius Oscar Unggul
Lisa Curran
Catherine Plume
Data Collection, Analysis, and Map Production
Elizabeth Selig
Rina Agustine, C.M. Dessy Anggraini, Endarmiyati (GIS analyst), Ganip Gunawan; Y. Martin Hardiono (GIS
analyst), Albert T. Mulyono, Rainny Natalia, Christian Purba, Dwi Prabowo YS (GIS analyst), Rudy A. Ranaq,
Data Collection, Analysis, and Map Production
Mardi Minang Sari, Lisken L.M. Situmorang (data coordination and supervision, reference collection), Wishnu
Susan Minnemeyer (GIS analyst), Esther Owubah (GIS
Tirta, Arbi Valentinus, Wardiyono (database programming and system development), Denny Yomaki
analyst), Elizabeth Selig (GIS analyst)
Report Management and Administration
Report Production
Publications Manager: Hyacinth Billings
Coordinators: Lisken L.M. Situmorang, Muhammad Ridwan, Arbi Valentinus
Editor: Sheila Mulvihill
Fundraising and administration, finance management: Rina Agustine, E.G. Togu Manurung, Abdon Nababan,
Layout and Production: Maggie Powell
Rainny Natalia
Design: Papyrus Design & Marketing, Washington, DC
This report should be cited as: FWI/GFW. 2002. The State of the Forest: Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia: Forest Watch Indonesia, and Washington DC: Global Forest Watch.

Cover photographs (top to bottom to background)
1. © E.G. Togu Manurung
2. © FWI Papua
3. © FWI Sulawesi
4. © E.G. Togu Manurung
Each World Resources Institute report
represents a timely, scholarly treatment of a subject of public concern.
WRI takes responsibility for choosing the study topics
and guaranteeing its authors and researchers freedom of inquiry.
It also solicits and responds to the guidance of advisory panels and expert reviewers.
Unless otherwise stated, however,
all the interpretation and findings set forth in WRI publications
are those of the authors.
Copyright © 2002 World Resources Institute. All rights reserved.
ISBN 1-56973-492-5 ENGLISH
Available in Indonesian as Keadaan Hutan Indonesia
ISBN 979.96730.0.3 INDONESIAN
Library of Congress Control Number: 2001099749
Printed in the United States of America on chlorine-free paper with recycled content of 50%, 20% of which is post-consumer.
iv
THE STATE OF THE FOREST: INDONESIA

CONTENTS
Acknowledgments .......................................................................................... vii
Notes ................................................................................................................. 68
Foreword ........................................................................................................... ix
Glossary ........................................................................................................... 72
Key Findings .................................................................................................... xi
References ........................................................................................................ 74
1.
Indonesia’s Forests: What is at Stake? .............................................. 1
Annex 1: Guest Commentaries on Data Difficulties ................................ 77
1.1. 100 Million Hectares of Tropical Forest .......................................................... 1
Annex 2: Tables .............................................................................................. 81
1.2 A Rich Natural World Is Disappearing ............................................................ 1
Annex 3: Data Sources and Technical Notes ............................................. 85
1.3 People Also Depend on the Forests ................................................................. 3
1.4 Timber Products Are a Major Source of National Revenue ............................ 4
1.5 Assessing the State of the Forest ..................................................................... 4
1.6 Structure of the Report .................................................................................... 6
2.
Forest Cover, Change, and Condition ................................................ 7
2.1 Forest Cover and Change ................................................................................. 7
2.2 Forest Condition Today ................................................................................. 15
3.
Deforestation and Forest Degradation ............................................. 23
3.1 The Dynamics of Deforestation: An Overview ............................................. 23
3.2 Timber Extraction: Logging Concessions (HPHs) ........................................ 24
3.3 Timber Extraction: Illegal Logging ............................................................... 30
3.4 Industrial Timber Plantations (HTIs) ............................................................. 36
3.5 Oil Palm and Other Large-scale Industrial Estate Crops ............................... 42
3.6 Small-scale Farming ...................................................................................... 47
4.
Forest and Land Fires ........................................................................ 53
4.1 From Normal to Abnormal Fires ................................................................... 53
4.2 The Fires of 1982-1983 and 1994 ................................................................. 53
4.3 The Fires of 1997-1998 ................................................................................. 54
4.4 Government Response to Forest and Land Fires ........................................... 57
5.
The Prospects for Forest Policy Reform ........................................... 59
5.1 The Forest Policy Context: A Country in Crisis ............................................ 59
5.2 Political Paralysis at the Center ..................................................................... 60
5.3 Separatism and Demands for Decentralization in the Provinces ................... 60
5.4 Spreading Civil Violence and the Breakdown of Law and Order ................. 61
5.5 Conflicts over Forest Lands and Resources ................................................... 61
5.6 The Agenda and Prospects for Policy Reform ............................................... 66
THE STATE OF THE FOREST: INDONESIA
v

Figures
Tables
Maps
1.1
Biotic Richness: Percent of World’s Species
1.1
Indonesia’s Leading Exports, 1997 .......................................... 5
Map 1
Natural Forest Cover Change in Indonesia,
Found in Indonesia .................................................................... 1
2.1
Forest Cover in 1950 ................................................................. 8
1985–1997 ..............................................................................
2.1
Deforestation from the Preagricultural Era to 1997 ................. 9
2.2
Forest Area and Deforestation, 1985–1997 ............................ 12
Map 2
Natural Forest Cover Change in Kalimantan,
2.2
Changes in Forest Cover in Sumatra, 1900–2010 .................. 14
(GOI/World Bank Estimate)
1985–1997 ..............................................................................
2.3
Changes in Forest Cover in Kalimantan, 1900–2010 ............ 14
2.3
Forest Area and Deforestation, 1985–1997
Map 3
Loss of Lowland, Submontane, and Montane Forest,
2.4
Changes in Forest Cover in Sulawesi, 1900–2100 ................. 14
(GFW Estimate) ...................................................................... 13
1985–1997 ..............................................................................
2.5
Allocated Forest Function and Actual Forest Cover, 1997 .... 16
2.4
Loss of Lowland Forest in Sumatra, Kalimantan,
Map 4
Extent and Distribution of Low Access and
3.1
Processes of Forest Degradation and
and Sulawesi, 1900–1997 ....................................................... 14
Accessed Forest, 1997 ...........................................................
Deforestation in Indonesia ...................................................... 25
2.5
Revisions to Permanent Forest Status
Map 5
Fragmentation of Low Access and Potentially
3.2
Production and Export of Logs, 1961–1999 .......................... 26
Between 1986 and 2000 ......................................................... 16
Low Access Forest .................................................................
3.3
Production and Export of Plywood, 1961–1999 .................... 26
2.6
Natural Forest, Potentially Degraded Forest,
Map 6
Protection Status of Low Access and Potentially
Low Access Forest .................................................................
3.4
Concession Area in Major Provinces, 1985–1998 ................. 27
and Deforested Area, Mid-1990s ............................................ 18
Map 7
Extent and Distribution of Protected Areas, Kalimantan ......
3.5
Industrial Roundwood Production, 1980–2000 ..................... 32
3.1
Ranking of Top 10 Timber Groups by HPH Holdings,
1994–95 and 1997–98 ............................................................ 28
Map 8
Extent and Distribution of Logging Concessions .................
3.6
Installed Capacity in the Wood Processing
Industries, 1999 ....................................................................... 33
3.2
Logging Concession Status and Area, Reported in 2000 ...... 28
Map 9
Limited Survey of Reported Cases of Illegal Logging,
1997–1998 ..............................................................................
3.7
Installed Capacity and Production in the
3.3
Forest Condition in 432 Current and
Pulp Industry, 1990–2001 ....................................................... 40
Expired Logging Concessions ................................................ 29
Map 10 Extent and Distribution of Estate Crops in Sumatra .............
3.8
Installed Capacity and Production in the
3.4
Timber Supply from All Legal Sources .................................. 32
Map 11 Plantations in Former Logging Concessions,
Paper & Paperboard Industry, 1990–2001 ............................. 40
3.5
Estimated Timber Supply-Demand Imbalance, 1997–98 ...... 33
Sumatra and Kalimantan ........................................................
3.9
Growth in Area of Oil Palm Plantations, 1967–2000 ............ 43
3.6
Allocation and Planting of Industrial Timber
Map 12 Forest Uses and Areas Burned in 1997–1998:
Plantations (HTIs), to December 2000 ................................... 38
East Kalimantan .....................................................................
Boxes
3.7
Forested Versus Nonforested Area in 6 Industrial
Map 13 Limited Survey of Reported Conflicts Over
Timber Plantation Concessions .............................................. 41
Forest Resources, 1997–1999 ................................................
1.1
The Wallace Line ...................................................................... 2
3.8
HPH Logging Concessions Converted to HTI Concessions,
2.1
Data Sources and Difficulties ................................................. 10
to 1998, by Province ............................................................... 41
2.2
Impacts of Logging on Dipterocarp Forests ........................... 17
3.9
Land Holdings of Top 10 Oil Palm Conglomerates, 1997 ..... 43
2.3
Oil Palm Development in Gunung Leuser National Park ...... 21
3.10 The Balance Between Designated Conversion Forest Area and
3.1
Common Illegal Practices of Timber Companies .................. 29
Applications for Conversion of Forest to Plantation Crops ... 45
3.2
What Do We Mean by Illegal Logging? ................................. 31
3.11 Forest Area Released for Transmigration Site Development,
3.3
Illegal Logging: A Tale of Two National Parks ...................... 34
to 1998 ..................................................................................... 50
3.4
Some Cases in Which Companies Have Developed Industrial
4.1
Estimated Area Damaged by Fire, 1997–1998 ...................... 54
Timber Plantations in Productive Natural Forest ................... 37
4.2
Summary of the Economic Cost of
3.5
Illegal Use of Logging Concession Land for
the 1997–1998 Fires and Haze ............................................... 55
Oil Palm in Northern Sumatra ................................................ 44
4.3
Health Effects of Fire-Related Haze Exposure in
3.6
Clearing Natural Forests for Estate Crops on Small Islands:
8 Indonesian Provinces, September-November 1997 ............ 57
The Case of Wawonii Island in Southeast Sulawesi Province . 46
3.7
Transmigration and Forest Clearance ..................................... 48
4.1
The Oil Palm-Forest Fire Connection:
Why Do People Set Fires? ...................................................... 56
5.1
Regional Autonomy and Forest Management ........................ 62
5.2
National Parks and Indigenous People:
Cooperation or Conflict? Two Cases From Sulawesi ............. 65
5.3
Indonesia’s 12 Commitments to the Consultative Group on
Indonesia Concerning Forests and Forest Policy ................... 67
vi
THE STATE OF THE FOREST: INDONESIA

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Forest Watch Indonesia (FWI) and Global Forest
Expert Review Meeting, Held at the Wisma
IPB, Bogor; Emily Matthews, Global Forest
Watch (GFW) wish to thank the following indi-
Bogor Permai, 29-30 June, 2001
Watch/World Resources Institute, Washington, DC;
viduals for their support, contributions, and review
Muayat Ali Muhsi, Konsorsium Pendukung Sistem
comments on this report:
Dian Agista, Birdlife-Indonesia Programme,
Hutan Kerakyatan, Bogor; Abdon Nababan, Aliansi
Bogor; Rina Agustine, National Secretariat FWI,
Masyarakat Adat Nusantara, Jakarta; Rainny
Bogor; Restu Achmaliadi, Jaringan Kerja Pemetaan
Internal Review Meeting, Held at the
Natalia, FWI Simpul Bogor; Nuswanto, Direktorat
Wisma Bogor Permai, 27-28 April, 2001
Partisipatif, Bogor; Albertus T. Mulyono, FWI
Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam,
Simpul Bogor; M. Ali Arsyad, Pusat Pembentukan
Departemen Kehutanan, Jakarta; Lyndon B.
Rina Agustine, National Secretariat FWI, Bogor;
Wilayah Pengelolaan dan Perubahan Kawasan
Pangkali, FWI Simpul Papua, Jayapura; Christian
Wardiyono, CIFOR, Bogor; Restu Achmaliadi,
Hutan, Badan Planologi Kehutanan, Departemen
Purba, FWI Simpul Bogor; Boen M. Purnama,
Jaringan Kerja Pemetaan Partisipatif, Bogor;
Kehutanan, Jakarta; Charles Victor (Chip) Barber,
Pusat Rencana Kehutanan, Badan Planologi
Albertus T. Mulyono, FWI Simpul Bogor;
World Resources Institute, Manila; Chehafudin,
Kehutanan, Departemen Kehutanan, Jakarta;
Chehafudin, Aliansi Relawan untuk Penyelamatan
Aliansi Relawan untuk Penyelamatan Alam,
Haryanto R. Putro, Faculty of Forestry IPB, Bogor;
Alam, Yogyakarta; Dwi Prabowo YS, FWI Simpul
Yogyakarta; Chrystanto, Pusat Perpetaan Badan
Widodo S. Ramono, Direktorat Konservasi
Bogor; Hariadi Kartodiharjo, Faculty of Forestry,
Planologi Kehutanan, Departemen Kehutanan,
Kawasan, Direktorat Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan
IPB/Bappedal, Bogor/Jakarta; Rajidt Ch Malley,
Jakarta; Wilistra Danny, Direktorat
dan Konservasi Alam, Jakarta; Muhammad
FWI Simpul Sumatra/Yayasan Leuser Lestari,
Penanggulangan Kebakaran, Departemen
Ridwan, National Secretariat FWI, Bogor; William
Medan; Togu Manurung, National Secretariat FWI,
Kehutanan, Jakarta; Sadikin Djajapertjunda; Dwi
M. Rombang, Birdlife-Indonesia Programme,
Bogor; Lyndon B. Pangkali, FWI Simpul Papua,
Prabowo YS, FWI Simpul Bogor; Elfian Effendi,
Bogor; A. Ruwindrijarto, Telapak Indonesia,
Jayapura; Christian Purba, FWI Simpul Bogor;
Natural Resource Management Program/EPIQ,
Bogor; Harry Santoso, Pusat Pengukuhan dan
Muhammad Ridwan, National Secretariat FWI,
Jakarta; Yasir Al Fatah, FWI Simpul Kalimantan,
Penatagunaan Kawasan Hutan Badan Planologi
Bogor; A. Ruwindrijarto, Telapak Indonesia,
Banjarmasin; Hargyono, Direktorat Bina
Kehutanan, Departemen Kehutanan, Bogor; Iman
Bogor; Lisken Situmorang, ICRAF, Bogor; Wishnu
Pengembangan Hutan Tanaman, Ditjen BPK,
Santoso, Forest Inventory and Monitoring Project,
Tirta, FWI Simpul Bogor; Yasir Al Fatah, FWI
Departemen Kehutanan, Jakarta; Bambang Hero
Ministry of Forestry, Jakarta; William Sunderlin,
Simpul Kalimantan, Banjarmasin; Muchlis L.
Saharjo, Forest Fire Laboratory, IPB, Bogor;
CIFOR, Bogor; Jatna Supriatna, Conservation
Usman, Yayasan Cinta Alam/ FWI Simpul
Imam, Planning Directorate, Ministry of Forestry,
International-Indonesia Programme, Jakarta;
Sulawesi, Kendari.
Jakarta; Rajidt Ch. Malley, FWI Simpul Sumatera/
Wishnu Tirta, FWI Simpul Bogor; Silverius Oscar
Yayasan Leuser Lestari-Medan; Togu Manurung,
Unggul, Yayasan Cinta Alam/ FWI Simpul
National Secretariat FWI, Bogor;
Sulawesi, Kendari; Arbi Valentinus, FWI Simpul
MuhammadYusram Massijaya, Faculty of Forestry
Bogor/Telapak, Bogor; Joko Waluyo, Sawit Watch/
Walhi, Jakarta.
THE STATE OF THE FOREST: INDONESIA
vii

Global Forest Watch and Forest Watch Indonesia
Funders
would also like to thank the many other individuals
Global Forest Watch would like to thank the
who provided data, valuable comments on data,
following donors for their overall support of Global
and much wise advice during the preparation of
Forest Watch Activities: AVINA, the United States
this report. These individuals are too numerous to
Agency for International Development (USAID),
list, but we are particularly grateful to Derek
the Department for International Development
Holmes, consultant to the World Bank, and Neil
(DFID) UK, IKEA, the Netherlands Ministry of
Scotland, UK Department for International Devel-
Foreign Affairs, the Turner Foundation, the
opment (DFID).
Biodiversity Support Program (BSP), and the
World Resources Institute.
Peer Review of Final Draft
Forest Watch Indonesia would like to thank the
Timothy H. Brown, Natural Resource Management
Natural Resources Management-EPIQ Program of
Program, United States Agency for International
the United States Agency for International Devel-
Development, Jakarta; Dirk Bryant, Tony Janetos,
opment (USAID), the Netherlands Committee for
Ralph Ridder, Frances Seymour, and Dan Tunstall,
the World Conservation Union (NC-IUCN), and
World Resources Institute, Washington, DC; Nigel
the Department for International Development
Sizer, The Nature Conservancy, Jakarta; William
(DFID) UK, for their specific support of Forest
Sunderlin, CIFOR, Bogor; Thomas E. Walton,
Watch Indonesia activities in Indonesia. FWI
World Bank, Jakarta.
would also like to thank IKEA for providing funds
to GFW in support of low access mapping in
Indonesia.
viii
THE STATE OF THE FOREST: INDONESIA

FOREWORD
Indonesia is endowed with some of the most
from illegal sources. Wood is routinely smuggled
extensive and biologically diverse tropical forests
across the border to neighboring countries, costing
in the world. Tens of millions of Indonesians
the Indonesian government millions of dollars in
depend directly on these forests for their liveli-
lost revenues each year.
hoods, whether gathering forest products for their
daily needs or working in the wood-processing
Although the evidence of destruction is mounting,
sectors of the economy. The forests are home to an
the picture has been muddied by conflicting data,
abundance of flora and fauna unmatched in any
disinformation, claim and counterclaim. The need
country of comparable size. Even today, almost
for an objective appraisal of the situation is urgent
every ecological expedition that sets out to explore
– one that will provide a sound information base
Indonesia’s tropical forests returns with discoveries
for every individual and organization seeking to
of new species.
bring about positive change.
But a tragedy is unfolding in Indonesia. The
The data difficulties are formidable, but this report
country now finds itself the unwelcome center of
sets out to meet that need. It provides a compre-
world attention, as domestic and international
hensive summary of the scale and pace of change
outrage mounts over the rampant destruction of a
affecting Indonesia’s forests and identifies the
great natural resource. Indonesia’s “economic
forces and actors that are driving deforestation.
miracle” of the 1980s and 1990s turns out to have
Forest Watch Indonesia and Global Forest Watch
been based, in part, on ecological devastation and
have compiled the best available official data and
abuse of local people’s rights and customs. For
reports from environmentalists in the field to
example, one of the country’s fastest growing
address the following questions: How much of
sectors, the pulp and paper industry, has not
Indonesia’s forest cover is left, and how much has
established the plantations necessary to provide a
been lost over the past 50 years? What is the
secure supply of pulpwood. Instead, pulpmills rely
condition of remaining forest cover today? What
largely on wholesale clearing of natural forest. The
are the major driving forces behind deforestation,
economy is plagued by lawlessness and corruption.
and who are the principal actors? Given current
Illegal logging has been rampant for years and is
political and economic conditions in Indonesia,
believed to have destroyed some 10 million ha of
what are the prospects for forest policy reform?
forest. Indonesia’s wood-processing industries
operate in a strange legal twilight, in which major
Our findings do not provide grounds for much
companies that – until the economic crisis of 1997
optimism, despite clear signs of change in Indone-
– attracted billions of dollars in Western invest-
sia. The major bilateral and multilateral donors are
ment, obtain more than half their wood supplies
now working actively with the Indonesian govern-
THE STATE OF THE FOREST: INDONESIA
ix