The U.S. Army Future Concept for the Human Dimension

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TRADOC Pam 525-3-7


TRADOC Pam 525-3-7

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TRADOC Pam 525-3-7


From the Commanding General
U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command

In August 2006, I directed a study to take a thoughtful and detailed look at what we are
calling the Human Dimension. In looking to an uncertain future in the years 2015 to 2024, we
envision an increasingly complex operational environment that will challenge individual
Soldiers, their leaders, and their organizations in unprecedented ways. I want this concept to
serve as a point of departure for wide-ranging discussion, research, and investigations into what
impacts the performance, reliability, flexibility, endurance, and adaptability of an Army made up
of Soldiers, their families, civilians, and contractors.

The Army cannot afford to focus only on current operations as a predictor of the future. It
must prepare people so that future commanders can sustain operations in a time of persistent
conflict. Approved Army concepts describe the employment of Soldiers in the future. The United
States Army Concept for the
Human Dimension goes further to explore human factors in war
across the range of military operations. This concept reaches beyond the issues of equipping
Soldiers with hardware tools of war into the more subtle moral, cognitive, and physical
components of Soldier development. This concept derives from TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-7-01,
The U.S. Army Study of the Human Dimension in the Future 2015-2024 that I recommend as an
accompanying reference document.

The Army will always rely on an array of capabilities developed by other Services and the
larger joint community in order to achieve its goals. Similarly, the entire joint force will
regularly participate in multinational and interagency operations. Thus, I strongly encourage the
use of the Human Dimension concept and study in our interactions with other Services and joint
organizations, both to advance the intellectual dialogue regarding future operations and to
strengthen the basis for defining future Army and joint requirements, in the spirit of joint
interdependence. In the same vein, recognizing that the Army and other Services operate in
support of the Nation and that many of the required capabilities this study reveals are beyond the
capability of the Department of Defense, I welcome and encourage comments from an even
wider community.

As with all concepts, the Human Dimension concept will be in continuous evolution. I expect
it to spur thought, motivate investigation and illuminate, through a structured approach, a
strategy for the coordinated and holistic development of future capabilities. I think of it as an
agent of change, change necessitated by an uncertain future in which the Army must be capable
of responding to everything from humanitarian assistance to major combat. It will be refined and
updated as new learning emerges from research, operational experience, and the results of
continuing investigations into future operations.


TRADOC Pam 525-3-7
Executive Summary


The human dimension encompasses the moral, physical, and cognitive components of
Soldier, leader, and organizational development and performance essential to raise, prepare, and
employ the Army in full spectrum operations. Army concepts acknowledge the Soldier as the
centerpiece of the Army, but none, individually or collectively, adequately addresses the human
dimension of future operations. This concept provides an integrating and forcing function that
draws on other joint and Army concepts to describe those aspects of a highly nuanced human
dimension interacting at all levels.

The Operational Problem

Current trends in the global and domestic operational environments will challenge the United
States’ ability to maintain a future responsive, professional, All-Volunteer Force. Soldiers will
operate in an era of persistent conflict amongst populations with diverse religious, ethnic, and
societal values. Faced with continuous employment across the full range of military operations,
the Army will require extraordinary strength in the moral, physical, and cognitive components of
the human dimension. Existing accessions, personnel, and force training and education
development efforts will not meet these future challenges, placing at grave risk the Army’s
ability to provide combatant commanders the forces and capabilities necessary to execute the
National Security, National Defense, and National Military Strategies.

Solution Synopsis

The Army will need to increase its focus on the human dimension in both the operational
Army and the Generating Force in order to meet future challenges and operate in an era of
persistent conflict. Improved capabilities must address the broad range of human dimension
actions necessary to prepare, support, and sustain this force. The Army must maintain a proper
balance of moral, physical, and cognitive development with contributions from science and
technology that can enhance Soldier physical and mental performance. The Army must widen
the community of practice in the human dimension to continue to explore how we can best
recruit, train, and retain an All-Volunteer Force that can operate across the range of military

TRADOC Pam 525-3-7
Department of the Army

TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-7
Headquarters, United States Army
Training and Doctrine Command
Fort Monroe, Virginia 23651-1047

11 June 2008

Military Operations







Chief of Staff

History. This pamphlet is a new U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC)
concept and is part of the Army Concept Strategy for the future Modular Force. It is based on
TRADOC Pamphlet (Pam) 525-3-7-01, The U.S. Army Study of the Human Dimension in the
Future 2015-2024,
which provides the background study and analysis for this concept.
Summary. This pamphlet outlines the future operational environment and its impact on the triad
of the moral, cognitive, and physical components of the human dimension. It addresses as well
the impact and considerations of stress, human capital strategies, science and technology, and
leadership on the human dimension.
Applicability. This pamphlet applies to all Department of Defense, Department of the Army,
and TRADOC activities that identify and develop doctrine, organization, training, materiel,
leadership and education, personnel, and facilities solutions to human dimension initiatives. All
active Army, Army National Guard, and Army Reserve operating forces, and the Army Materiel
Command may use this pamphlet to identify future human dimension trends in the Army. This
pamphlet may also serve as a reference document to agencies within the joint community that are
planning or are concerned with the human dimension.

TRADOC Pam 525-3-7
Proponent and exception authority. The proponent of this pamphlet is the TRADOC
Headquarters, Director, Army Capabilities Integration Center (ARCIC). The proponent has the
authority to approve exceptions or waivers to this pamphlet that are consistent with controlling
law and regulations. Do not supplement this pamphlet without prior approval from Director,
ARCIC (ATFC-ED) 33 Ingalls Road, Fort Monroe, VA 23651-1061.
Suggested improvements. Users are invited to send comments and suggested improvements on
DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) directly to Director,
ARCIC (ATFC-ED), 33 Ingalls Road, Fort Monroe, VA 23651-1061. Suggested improvements
may also be submitted using DA Form 1045 (Army Ideas for Excellence Program Proposal).
Distribution. This publication is only available on the TRADOC Homepage at


Executive Summary

Chapter 1
The Human Dimension, the Operational Environment and the American Soldier
Chapter 2

Chapter 3
The Moral Component—Developing Soldiers of Character for the Army and Nation
Chapter 4
The Physical Component—Developing Soldier Physical Performance

Chapter 5
The Cognitive Component—Training and
Chapter 6
Boots on the Ground: The Human Dimension in Future Modular Force Operations
Appendix A


TRADOC Pam 525-3-7

1-1. Introduction

The human dimension encompasses the
moral, physical, and cognitive components
of Soldier, leader, and organizational
development and performance essential to
raise, prepare, and employ the Army in full
spectrum operations. This definition
recognizes that Soldier readiness—
everything from training proficiency to
motivation to well-being—is fundamental to
the Army’s future success. It introduces the
concept of holistic fitness, a comprehensive
combination of the whole person including
all components of the human dimension
triad. The human dimension definition also
acknowledges that war, notwithstanding the
inevitable changes in the purposes, ways
and means, will remain a savage clash of

This concept derives from the United
States (U.S.) Army Study of the Human
Dimension in the Future 2015-2024
Training and Doctrine Command
(TRADOC) Pamphlet 525-3-7-01. The
study is the baseline for a dynamic and
ongoing effort that will stimulate further research and dialogue. The study contains questions for
further study, required capabilities, and a series of vignettes that highlight the key ideas of this
concept. While both the study and the concept are stand-alone documents, the comprehensive
research underlying both resides primarily in the study. This study is available for use as an
accompanying reference document at
1-2. Organization of the Concept
Human Dimension concept is unique among Army concepts not only in its subject
matter, but also in its organization. It begins with the operational problem and a discussion of a
future of persistent conflict, identifying trends that will affect the human dimension in both the
global and domestic operational environments (OE). It continues with a discussion of the Army
as a profession and of the future challenges facing Soldiers including members of the Army

Chapter 2 introduces the preeminent role of commanders and leaders at all levels in
comprehending and applying all aspects of the human dimension to accomplish the Army’s
mission. It sets the stage for the human dimension triad.

Chapters 3, 4, and 5 introduce the triad of the moral, physical, and cognitive components of
Soldier and organizational development and performance. The last chapter summarizes the
concept and lays down a challenge to today’s Soldiers and leaders to take action proactively to

TRADOC Pam 525-3-7
insure that the Nation continues to invest its energy and resources in the right way to maintain
and evolve the preeminent land forces of the future.
1-3. The Future Environment and Unchanging Nature of Conflict

In future conflicts, the U.S. Army will not have the
Every war is going to astonish
luxury of choosing its adversary. Potential opponents are
you in the way it occurred, and
unlikely to challenge our strengths directly, but they can be
in the way it is carried out.
relied on to find novel means of gaining their ends.

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Potential adversaries already acquire alternative low cost
weapons or develop military applications of commercial
technology to attack the U.S. asymmetrically—in ways that avoid American strengths.

While conventional combat remains a possibility, the most likely future clashes will be
against opponents that will approach warfare from radically different perspectives that do not
conform to U.S. or Western practices. They will view American moral, political, and cultural
values as vulnerabilities to exploit without constraint. Typically, such adversaries would seek to
win by prolonging combat and attacking the political and popular support of U.S. and coalition
forces rather than attempting to destroy their armed forces. The U.S. and its military forces, often
with allies and other interested nations, can expect to engage in complex, sometimes intermittent,
power struggles worldwide in order to protect national interests. For Army forces, this strategy of
continuous engagement in an era of persistent conflict places a great premium on understanding
the human dimension.

The Art of War. Future conflict will remain complex and
chaotic, and human frailties and irrationality will continue to
characterize war’s nature. Ambiguity, danger, physical
exertion, friction, and chance, constitute the climate of war,
which contributes to the fog of war with which commanders
must contend in future operations. Technology, intelligence,
and operational design can reduce uncertainty. However,
commanders must still make decisions based on incomplete,
inaccurate, or contradictory information. These factors will
continue to play a predominant role in the environment of
future full spectrum operations.
1-4. Future Operational and Domestic Environment Trends

The U.S. may not feel the full impact of the discernable trends in the contemporary OE until
2025 or later. Nevertheless, their influence is shaping the world today. Many of the trends—
population growth, climate change, depletion of natural resources among them—are difficult to
predict with any degree of certainty into 2020 and later, but they help define the challenges the
Army will face in the future.

The joint OE provides a framework for considering the future and for determining the impact
of the OE on joint force operations. It discusses critical variables, trends, and the range of
possible conditions shaped by those trends. Finally, the joint OE considers the implications of
these trends on the way the military will train, equip, and employ the future joint force.

Today the U.S. faces several challenging, dangerous, and potentially inescapable geo-
strategic trends. These trends include social and cultural factors; the dynamics of geopolitics and

TRADOC Pam 525-3-7
governance; the globalization of economics and resources; the revolution in science, technology,
and engineering; and, global climate change.
globalization is not a new phenomenon, the rapidly
accelerated blending of business, technology, and culture
coupled with near instant media coverage offers both
opportunities and threats for the future. The effects of
globalization include interdependent economies, the
empowerment of non-state actors, porous international
boundaries, and the declining ability of the nation-state to
control fully its own territory and economy, and to provide
security and other services. Globalization shrinks the world
and forces the interaction of differing societies and cultures.

Ubiquitous and cheap access to the World Wide Web and telecommunications has made
knowledge universally available and facilitate targeted information engagement. Ready access to
information will increase the awareness of those left behind in the climb toward global
prosperity, in essence, creating a condition of global relative deprivation—an increase in
awareness of a widening gap between the haves and have-nots.

Oil and natural gas will continue to provide a significant fraction of the world’s energy
usage. As demand continues to rise and growth of production declines, there will be inevitable
competition for access to these resources. China and India will increase their consumption by
factors of two and three respectively. Current investments aimed at reducing demand, increase
supply, or seek alternative sources of energy, are insufficient.

The character of the world’s developed nations is changing. Declining birth rates and
increasing longevity contribute to an aging population in Europe, Japan, Russia, and elsewhere.
In Europe, immigration swells the ranks of minorities, whose greater birth rate may displace
native majorities. Japan and Russia have no significant immigration and their populations are
actually declining. Demographic patterns in developed nations threaten their continued stability
and economic success.

Increases in the world’s urban population indicate that by 2030 over 60 percent (4.9 billion)
will live in urban areas. Several mega-cities such as Mexico City, Sao Paolo, and Jakarta, will
have populations exceeding 20 million. Much of this urban growth will be concentrated in
coastal areas, with the majority of urban populations (57 percent, 2.8 billion people) living
within 60 miles of coastlines by 2025. The large concentration of people will push the urban
infrastructure to its limits. Urban areas will experience an increase in unemployment, drug abuse,
crime, and homelessness and will constitute a different and difficult OE.

During 2005-2020, organized crime is likely to thrive in resource-rich states experiencing
political and economic transformation, such as India, China, Russia, Nigeria, and Brazil. While
crime in itself is not a new challenge, its potential for growth in the next decades and the extent
to which criminal elements cooperate with weak politicians, insurgents and other agents of
instability is a cause for growing concern in the future OE.

Information-based societies must maintain educational excellence, or attract the best and
brightest foreign students, to maintain their excellence. Because skilled individuals migrate to
where jobs are available and devote their skills to the most rewarding enterprises, nations,

TRADOC Pam 525-3-7
businesses and political movements must compete for talent. The information technology
educational gap is growing rapidly. While the number of advanced degrees issued worldwide is
rapidly increasing, the global illiteracy rate—currently established at 18 percent—is likely to

Climate change has the potential to result in multiple chronic conditions occurring globally
intensifying the causes of instability and persistent conflict. The predicted effects of climate
change include extreme weather events, drought, flooding, sea-level rise, retreating glaciers,
habitat shifts, and the increased spread of life-threatening diseases.
Demographic and economic pressures multiply as world population grows and the
distribution of wealth and resources change. Higher rates of resource consumption, more intense
competition, and continuing pollution will pose new problems for diplomats and regional leaders
and generate new conflict. These global trends will involve the U.S. in new forms of economic,
political, and even military competition directly challenged by domestic dynamics that impede
the ability to meet such competition.

There is a real danger that the U.S. is losing its economic and military dominance, and, along
with it, its preeminent position as leader of western civilization. As global trends raise the level
of the U.S.’ economic, political, and even military competition, the domestic environment
continues to challenge its ability to meet that competition.

Even though the U.S. remains a leader in innovation and advanced technology, 70 percent of
science and technology (S&T) research occurs outside of the United States. American S&T
communities now compete with growing economies around the world such as those of China,
India, and South Korea for investment and profit.
The U.S also remains one of the most favored
destinations for immigrants, legal and illegal. Unchecked
and uncontrolled illegal immigration is having and will
have a profound effect on U.S. social, legal, medical, and
educational systems. Increasingly, new immigrants are
resisting the broad assimilation that formerly typified

People born between 1980 and 2000 will have the
greatest influence on the nature of the Army in 2015-2024,
either as experienced Soldiers or new recruits. Ethnically
and culturally, these “Millennials” are a diverse and
fragmented generation. They are emerging as a tolerant, pragmatic, ambitious, and optimistic
group. They believe themselves to be influential and unique. They are familiar with all things
digital. Their values are not constants.

This growing and diverse population has mixed success in traditional U.S. education
systems. By many measures of success, the U.S. educational system is failing to prepare young
people for the future. A politically charged debate as to the reasons behind this failure remains
unsettled, but the consensus holds that the U.S. is losing ground among other industrialized
nations in the overall educational standard of the population.

A simple review of any article on America’s current obesity epidemic points to problems for
the future Modular Force. Overlay on these statistics the need for future Soldiers to perform in a

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