Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles

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Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water
Quality Management Principles

Edited by
Richard Helmer and Ivanildo Hespanhol
Published on behalf of

United Nations Environment Programme

Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council

World Health Organization
E & FN Spon
An imprint of Thomson Professional
London. Weinheim. New York. Tokyo. Melbourne. Madras
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First edition 1997
© 1997 WHO/UNEP
Printed in Great Britain by St Edmundsbury Press, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk
ISBN 0 419 22910 8
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Water Pollution Control
A guide to the use of water quality management principles
1997, 526 pages
ISBN 0419229108
published on behalf of WHO by F & FN Spon
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Policy and Principles
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Policy framework
1.3 Guiding principles for water pollution control
1.4 Strategy formulation
1.5 References
Chapter 2 - Water Quality Requirements
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Why water quality criteria and objectives?
2.3 Water quality criteria for individual use categories
2.4 Water quality objectives
2.5 Conclusions and recommendations
2.6 References
Chapter 3 - Technology Selection
3.1 Integrating waste and water management
3.2 Wastewater origin, composition and significance
3.3 Wastewater management
3.4 Pollution prevention and minimisation
3.5 Sewage conveyance
3.6 Costs, operation and maintenance
3.7 Selection of technology
3.8 Conclusions and recommendations
3.9 References
Chapter 4 - Wastewater as a Resource
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Types of reuse
4.3 Implementing or upgrading agricultural reuse systems
4.4 Technical aspects of health protection
4.5 Conclusions and recommendations
4.6 References
Chapter 5 - Legal and Regulatory Instruments

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Inventories for pollution control
5.3 Derivation of standards for point sources
5.4 Regulation of point sources
5.5 Non-point source pollution
5.6 Groundwater protection
5.7 Transboundary pollution
5.8 Conclusions
5.9 References
Chapter 6 - Economic Instruments
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Why use economic instruments?
6.3 Applying economic instruments
6.4 Choosing between instruments
6.5 Application in developing countries
6.6 Conclusions
6.7 References
Chapter 7 - Financing Wastewater Management
7.1 Introduction
7.2 The challenges of urban sanitation
7.3 The financial challenges
7.4 Strategic planning and policies for sustainable sanitation services
7.5 Conclusions
7.6 References
Chapter 8 - Institutional Arrangements
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The water pollution control sub-sector
8.3 Institutions and organisations
8.4 Criteria and determinants
8.5 Examples of institutional arrangements
8.6 Capacity building
8.7 Conclusions
8.8 References
Chapter 9 - Information Systems
9.1 Introduction
9.2 The importance of integration
9.3 Specifying information needs
9.4 Information gathering and dissemination
9.5 From data to information tools
9.6 Design of monitoring networks and selection of variables
9.7 Monitoring technology
9.8 References

Chapter 10 - Framework for Water Pollution Control
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Initial analysis of water quality problems
10.3 Establishing objectives for water pollution control
10.4 Management tools and instruments
10.5 Action plan for water pollution control
10.6 References
Case Study I - The Ganga, India
I.1 Introduction
I.2 The Ganga river
I.3 The Ganga Action Plan
I.4 Implementation problems
I.5 River water quality monitoring
I.6 The future
I.7 Conclusions and lessons learned
I.8 Recommendations
I.9 Source literature
Case Study II - Shanghai Huangpu River, China
II.1 Introduction
II.2 Background information
II.3 Institutional development and industrial pollution control
II.4 Pollution control strategy for the Huangpu River
II.5 Other major measures used in cleaning the Huangpu River
II.6 Conclusions
II.7 References
Case Study III - The Pasig River, Philippines
III.1 Country profile
III.2 Basin identification
III.3 Pre-intervention situation
III.4 The intervention scenario
III.5 Lessons learned, constraints and opportunities
III.6 Conclusions and recommendations
Case Study IV - Nigeria
IV.1 Introduction
IV.2 National environmental policy
IV.3 Water resources management
IV.4 Industrial water pollution control programme
IV.5 Conclusions
IV.6 References
Case Study V - The Witbank Dam Catchment

V.1 Introduction
V.2 Background information
V.3 The Witbank Dam catchment
V.4 Pre-intervention situation
V.5 Intervention with a new approach
V.6 Shortcomings of the approach
V.7 Conclusions
V.8 References
Case Study VI - The Upper Tietê Basin, Brazil
VI.1 Introduction
VI.2 The metropolitan region of São Paulo
VI.3 Pre-intervention situation
VI.4 The Tietê Project
VI.5 Industrial wastewater management
VI.6 Conclusions
VI.7 References
Case Study VII - The Mezquital Valley, Mexico
VII.1 Introduction
VII.2 The Mezquital Valley
VII.3 Pre-intervention situation
VII.4 Intervention scenario
VII.5 Lessons learned, constraints and opportunities
VII.6 Conclusions and recommendations
VII.7 References
Case Study VIII - Lerma-Chapala Basin, Mexico
VIII.1 Introduction
VIII.2 The Lerma-Chapala basin
VIII.3 Pre-intervention situation
VIII.4 Intervention scenario
VIII.5 Conclusions and lessons for the future
VIII.6 Final reflections
Case Study IX - The Danube Basin
IX.1 Introduction
IX.2 Economic activities in the basin
IX.3 The Environmental Programme for the Danube river basin
IX.4 The strategic action plan
IX.5 Problems and priorities
IX.6 Strategic directions
IX.7 Conclusions
IX.8 References
Case Study X - Moscow Region, Russia

X.1 Introduction
X.2 Description of the region
X.3 Water systems
X.4 Water resources assessment
X.5 Pollution sources
X.6 Major problems
X.7 The programme
X.8 International co-operation
X.9 Conclusion
X.10 References
Case Study XI - Cyprus
XI.1 Introduction
XI.2 Water resources
XI.3 Measures to conserve and replenish groundwater
XI.4 Direct use of treated wastewater for irrigation
XI.5 Pollution of water resources
XI.6 Conclusions and recommendations
XI.7 References
Case Study XII - Kingdom of Jordan
XII.1 Introduction
XII.2 General information on Jordan and Greater Amman
XII.3 Wastewaters and water pollution control
XII.4 Existing major wastewater management problems and needs
XII.5 Management solution alternatives
XII.6 Recommendations and possible results
XII.7 References
Case Study XIII - Sana'a, Yemen
XIII.1 Introduction
XIII.2 Water issues
XIII.3 Planned interventions
XIII.4 Lessons learned and conclusions
XIII.5 References
Appendix - Participants in the Working Group
Water Pollution Control

Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management
Edited by Richard Helmer and Ivanildo Hespanhol
Published on behalf of the United Nations Environment Programme, the Water Supply &
Sanitation Collaborative Council and the World Health Organization by E. & F. Spon
© 1997 WHO/UNEP
ISBN 0 419 22910 8

Publication of this book is a milestone for the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative
Council. It demonstrates the Council's unique capacity to bring together water and
sanitation professionals from industrialised and developing countries to formulate
practical guidance on a key issue of the day.
Industrialised countries have extensive experience of the problems caused by water
pollution and the strategies and technologies available to control it. In the developing
world, although pollution is increasing rapidly with urbanisation and industrialisation,
most countries have very limited experience of pollution control measures or of the
institutional and legislative frameworks needed to make such measures effective. On the
other hand, the Collaborative Council's developing country members have the specialist
knowledge and skills with which to adapt the practices of the industrialised nations to
their own circumstances.
This synergy among members is at the heart of the Council's approach to sector issues.
By mandating specialist working groups to seek out good practices, to analyse them and
to reach agreement on the best way forward, the Council is able to give its members
authoritative guidance and tools to help them face their own particular challenges.
Water pollution control is clearly one of the most critical of those challenges. Without
urgent and properly directed action, developing countries face mounting problems of
disease, environmental degradation and economic stagnation, as precious water
resources become more and more contaminated. At the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro
in June 1992, world leaders recognised the crucial importance of protecting freshwater
resources. Chapter 18 of Agenda 21 sees "effective water pollution prevention and
control programmes" as key elements of national sustainable development plans.
At its second Global Forum, in Rabat, Morocco, in 1993, the Collaborative Council
responded to the Rio accord by mandating a Working Group on Water Pollution Control,
convened jointly with the World Health Organization and the United Nations Environment
Programme. We were fortunate that Richard Helmer from the World Health Organization
agreed to co-ordinate the Working Group. Richard had been a prime mover in the
preparation of the freshwater initiatives endorsed in Rio de Janeiro and so was
particularly well placed to ensure that the Group's deliberations were well directed.
Experts from developing countries, UN agencies, bilaterals, professional associations,

and academic institutions have all contributed over the last three and a half years. The
Council is grateful to them, and I want to express my own personal appreciation for the
voluntary time and effort they have devoted to the task.
The result is a comprehensive guidebook which I know will be a valuable tool for policy
makers and environmental managers in developing and newly industrialised countries as
they seek to combat the damaging health, environmental and economic impacts of water
pollution. The council will play its part in advocacy and promotion. We all owe a duty to
future generations to safeguard their water supplies and to protect their living

Margaret Catley-Carlson,
Chair, Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council

Document Outline
  • Table of Contents
  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 1. Policy and principles
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Policy framework
    • 1.3 Guiding principles for water pollution control
    • 1.4 Strategy formulation
    • 1.5 References
  • Chapter 2. Water quality requirements
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Why water quality criteria and objectives?
    • 2.3 Water quality criteria for individual use categories
    • 2.4 Water quality objectives
    • 2.5 Conclusions and recommendations
    • 2.6 References
  • Chapter 3. Technology selection
    • 3.1 Integrating waste and water management
    • 3.2 Wastewater origin